New trends in European social and political thought...

New trends in Europe's social and political thought

Throughout the political history of the Western European Middle Ages, there has been a fierce struggle between the Roman Catholic Church, the papacy and secular feudal lords (primarily monarchs) for the predominant role in society. Accordingly, one of the central problems of the then political and legal knowledge was the question of which authority (organization) should have priority: the spiritual (church) or the secular (state).

At the end of the Middle Ages, secular knowledge gradually began to be freed from the tenets of Christian scholasticism. There were concepts of the liberation of the state from the subordination of the church and the restriction of the power of the king by estate representation. The right of the church to the supremacy of its power was called into question, since the power of the king was regarded as power received directly from God, and not from the Pope. Great acceptance here in England of the Magna Carta (1215), which for the first time proclaimed for a part of society (barons and knights) certain rights and freedoms, and the creation of the English parliament in the XIII century.

The formation of the idea of ​​a double truth - theological and philosophical, religious and scientific - began. Thus, Duns Scotus considered philosophy to be a pure theory, the exclusive object of which is nature, and theology a practical science whose exclusive object is the divine the kingdom of grace.

Partly, as a result of the discovery of Aristotle as it were, interest in questions concerning the development of the principles of the most perfect forms of government, according to the representations of that period, has increased. It was argued that only the kind of government that serves the common good and is based on the consent of all members of the community could be perfect. At the same time, most thinkers, concerned with the problem of achieving the unity of society, considered the monarchy, ie . the rule of one, as the best form most suitable for ensuring this unity.

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Gradually, the need for more or less clearly outlined external restrictions on this power became apparent. A number of provisions of Roman law at that time was interpreted as a means by which the people choose their ruler and establish a clearly delineated framework in which the ruler has the right to act.

In this channel, gradually formed the idea of ​​the need to differentiate the spheres of activity of the church and the state. So, in his work "The Protector of the World" Marsilus of Padua (between 1275 and 1280 - about 1343), laying responsibility for all the woes on the church, advocated its separation from the state and the subordination of secular authority. His ideas about the people-sovereign, the relationship between the legislative and executive authorities, the mandatory nature of the law for all persons in the state (including rulers), etc. had a noticeable positive impact on the formation in the Renaissance and the New Times of the idea of ​​the need to reorganize the forms of political self-organization of peoples and forms of government.

It is symptomatic that Marsilus of Padua defended a very radical thesis for the time that the people and only he is the source of both secular and spiritual power. He even expressed thoughts very close to the idea of ​​the division of power into a legislative and executive branch, formulated only in the New Times.

Revival and Reformation are the largest and most significant events of the late Western European Middle Ages. The ideologists of this period did not just draw their own ideas about the state, law, politics and law from the treasury of the spiritual culture of Antiquity. Demonstratively referring to Antiquity, they expressed opposition, denial of the political and legal order and doctrines of the Catholic Church that dominated Europe in the Middle Ages.

During the Renaissance, the crisis of the most scholastic type of thinking was revealed, on which the Catholic worldview was based, the process of forming a humanistic culture, the revival of interest in ancient thought and art. In general, already in the medieval contractual theory one can find the first embryos of the idea of ​​constitutionalism, which later became one of the basic constructions of the theory of democracy and the rule of law.

From all that has been said in this chapter, we can conclude that the period from Antiquity to the beginning of the New Time is the prehistory of political science, political philosophy and political sociology. Its main significance was the accumulation and transfer from generation to generation of political and political-philosophical knowledge. This period is represented by Aristotle, Plato, Cicero, F. Aquinas and other thinkers of antiquity and the Middle Ages, which it is more correct to call not political scientists or political philosophers in the proper sense of the word, and their forerunners.

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