Objective being and I-being - Philosophy

Objective being and "I-being"

It was in the twentieth century that this problem came to the fore, although its maturation was felt at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of FM Dostoevsky. If you like, then there was a premonition of terrible shocks that awaited humanity, when the attempts of arranging the "new" system were wrecked based on rationalistic assumptions. life. The concept of an objective and indifferent to man has collapsed, having mastered the laws of which a person can, as a supreme being, transform the world at his own discretion. The peculiar "religion of humanity", but to the expression of SN Bulgakov, first lifted the man, and then cast him into the black-bloody abyss, whose symbols were Polish Auschwitz, "freezing Auschwitz Kolyma" and the sizzling "fungus" Hiroshima. The crisis of the twentieth century embraced all aspects of civilization that grew out of the "seed" New time. He imperiously demanded "humane" life (here is a paradox: the rationalistic and humanistic thought that put Man with a capital letter at the top of everything, it turns out, did not leave room for just a man!).

In science, the revision of the foundations was manifested in the emergence of new theories (quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity of A. Einstein), the key concept of which was the concept of an observer absolutely impossible for the classical approach. This, of course, does not mean that objective existence loses its status, but with its new sides open, where there is no place for a break with human being. In the philosophical concepts of the 20th century, the emphasis is on being primarily as a human being: being is our life. So, for V. Dilthey, true being is an integral life. M. Heidegger criticizes the approach to being as something outside of this and the opposite subject. For him, the problem of being is meaningful only as a problem of human being, the problem of the ultimate foundations of a person's life. The most important expression of the universal mode of being is fear of nothing. The analysis of being must begin with the pass. This being is ourselves, which, among other possibilities of being, has the possibility of questioning: "Who are we and why, what is the meaning of our being?" The one who raises the question of being, first of all, is itself existing being, which has an understanding of its being. This is existential (from Latin - existence). Objective being and I-being are different kinds of being. Recognition of only one objective being is equivalent to self-oblivion. For human existence in existentialism, the spiritual and material are merged into a single whole: this is the spiritualized being (especially in the religious existentialism of NA Berdyaev, etc.). The main thing in this being is the consciousness of temporality (existence is the "being to death"), the constant fear of the last possibility - the possibility not to be: the consciousness of the uniqueness, the pricelessness of one's personality!

The relation between being and non-being is completely different: "Being only then is when it is threatened with non-existence" (FM Dostoyevsky). In the boundary situation (on the verge of non-being, death, destruction of personality), acute experiences of being arise. They are combined with ethical problems, with a moral choice on the verge of life and death that a person must do. Here our time has returned us to fundamental philosophical questions that will not solve the "objective" science: an arbitrarily scrupulous description of physical processes and the causes that cause them, does not reveal the essence of the tragedy of the situation. Before us is another kind of reality, a human phenomenon. This is what is called evil.

Otherwise, the relationship between man and God turns. It is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to present to a thinking person a full, full of truly high spirituality, without recognizing the correlation of his being with the transcendental values ​​predetermined by God and protected by religion. Religious consciousness does not allow us to think our earthly life as an exhaustive completeness of purpose, that is, the whole meaning of our being and being of the human race. Man, therefore, must have a more distant goal (as his transcendental superideal), lying not in this life, but beyond, in another world. A sad, but often encountered fact: a person hears or intuitively feels the voice of God, only getting into trouble, being, for example, struck by a fatal illness. In a border situation, a person is lonely in the universe, he craves God. The religious experience consists here that God does not appear as the organizer of the objective Universe, something like the great Watchmaker (whose image is born in physical pictures), and as the only living creature in the world, besides this person, in the Universe, shrinking to the size of a hospital bed or prison cell!

The difference in the comprehension of being by the 20th century and the centuries that preceded it, was most vividly reflected in art. It is interesting to compare the work of, perhaps, the great existential artist of the 20th century, AI Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) with the work of FM Dostoevsky (1821 - 1881). Dostoevsky, of course, is the predecessor of existentialists, but his heroes still have the opportunity to discuss issues of the general structure of the world (Ivan and Alesha Karamazov's dialogues), to theoretically weigh the child's tear " and the future "happiness of mankind", reject the world created by God, and "respectfully return the ticket to Him." For Solzhenitsyn's heroes, "the walls of the world shifted sharply," they also conduct dialogues: on barrack benches, in a prison cell, on the cot "cancer corps" or in the front dugout of the First World War. But not to the happiness of humanity they are now - "happiness" already come or is palpably coming. The question of the life of this particular individual is discussed in this one day. How to be? Is it possible to use violence: not in the name of the "general purpose", but simply to prevent yourself from being killed? What is the meaning of life for someone who tomorrow is doomed to die of cancer? Questions that for Dostoevsky's heroes can still be described as "ontological" for Solzhenitsyn's heroes have irrevocably become "existential."

It is worth saying and that's what. These features of awareness of the category of being as "I-being", or existential, can not be perceived simply as historically conditioned by the cruel realities of the 20th century. This is a definite, extremely important step in the cognition of being, and the past century is, in this sense, a crucial, transitional character. Apparently, there is a line directly going from the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, and we are waiting for the transition to the "new Middle Ages", according to the expression encountered by NA Berdyaev and SN Bulgakov. This idea (albeit with an opposite metaphorical form) is directly expressed by AI Solzhenitsyn in his "Harvard speech" (1978): "If not to destruction, the world has now approached the turn of history, in meaning equal to the turn from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, and will require us to spiritual outburst, rise to a new height of the survey, a new level of life, where there will not be , as in the Middle Ages, our physical nature is betrayed by the curse, but even more so, as in the Present Time, our spiritual life is trampled. This ascension is similar to climbing to the next anthropological level. And no one on Earth left any other way out, like - up

B. Russell in his concept of being tried to remove the opposition of objective and subjective existence in the concept of "existence in general." In his opinion, there is only one "real world"; and the imagination, for example, of Shakespeare is part of it. The thoughts that Shakespeare had when he wrote "Hamlet" are also real. Similarly, the thoughts that arise when we read this tragedy are real. All this is rather in the traditional-rationalistic way than the philosophy of "existence", but it expresses the same tendency: overcoming the limitations coming from the New Age.

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