Observation, experiment and description - Philosophy

Observation, experiment and description

People seek to know what they do not yet know. But first they must, at least in the most general form, know what they do not know and what they want to know. "Not everyone knows how much to know in order to know how little we know," says the Eastern saying. Trouble humanity, is an indicator of the level of its development: the problems that the ancient society lived with differ sharply from modern ones. Mankind sets itself, as a rule, such problems that it is able to resolve, because the problem itself arises when the conditions for its solution have matured.

Putting the problem at times is no less difficult than finding its solution. The correct formulation of the problem guides the search for its solution. Trying to find a solution to the problem posed can be done in two ways: to search for the necessary information in the existing literature or to independently investigate the problem with the help of observations, experiments and theoretical thinking. Important methods of research in science, especially in natural science, are observation and experiment.

Observation is a deliberate, planned perception, carried out in order to reveal the essential properties and relationships of the object of cognition. Observation can be direct and indirect, for example, using a microscope, etc. Molecules are now available to the visual observation with an electron microscope. Observation is an active form of activity aimed at certain objects and assuming the formulation of goals and objectives. Every person who wants to know something has to accustom his eye to observation. The ability to see and notice the important and essential that the majority seems unworthy of attention - that's what makes the secret of innovation in science and art and characterizes the mind shrewd, creative and original. Observation requires special training. The most important place in the preparation of observations should be to understand the tasks of observation, the requirements to which it must satisfy, the preliminary development of a plan and methods of observation. Observation captures what nature itself offers, but a person can not confine himself to the role of an observer. Carrying out experiments, he is also an active tester. An experiment is a method of investigation by means of which an object is either reproduced artificially or placed in certain conditions that correspond to the purposes of the investigation. A special form of cognition is a mental experiment that takes place over an imaginary model. It is characterized by a close interaction of imagination and thinking.

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The main method of experiment is the method of changing the conditions in which the object under study is usually located. It makes it possible to discover the causal relationship between the conditions and properties of the object under study, as well as the nature of the changes in these properties in connection with the change in conditions. Simultaneously, this method makes it possible to discover those new properties of objects that do not manifest themselves under natural conditions, for example, in laboratories of artificial climate, it is possible to determine more or less accurately the effect of temperature, light, humidity, etc. on the growth and development of plants. As certain properties of the object change (with occasional reappearance) as the conditions change, while others do not undergo significant changes, we can get distracted from the latter. The experiment is characterized by the controllability of conditions, the ability to measure process parameters and the use of tools and instruments. A person can fall into all sorts of misconceptions. Devices are deprived of this shortcoming. Thanks to a microscope, a telescope, an X-ray machine, a radio, a television, a telephone, a seismograph, etc. man greatly expanded and deepened his perception capabilities. The successes of science, especially natural science, are closely connected with the improvement of methods and means of experimentation, which allow us to carry out observations with increasing flexibility and subtlety. In recent years, scientists have been able to use, for example, computers that are tightly integrated into the very process of scientific creativity.

The experiment can be repeated many times and thereby base conclusions on a large number of observations. In order to set up the experiment, as well as for observation, preliminary knowledge is necessary, it is required, as Pavlov avuncled, a well-known general idea of ​​the subject in order to have something to cling to the facts in order to have something to assume for future research . These general ideas, assumptions, working hypotheses are taken from previous observations, experiments, and from the combined experience of mankind. They are the ones who direct the experiment. Observation, experiment - actual or mental, produced at random, without a clearly realized goal, can not lead to an effective result. Without an idea in my head, Pavlov said, you will not see the fact at all.

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During the course of and as a result of observation and experiment, a description or recording is carried out. It is also produced in the form of a report using commonly accepted terms, and graphically, in the form of graphs, drawings, photographic and film films, and symbolically in the form of mathematical, chemical formulas, etc. The basic scientific requirement for description is the reliability, accuracy of reproduction of observational data and experiment. The description can be complete and incomplete, but always assumes a certain systematization of the material, i.e. its grouping and some generalization: the pure description remains only on the threshold of scientific creativity.

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