On the discovery and invention, On the creative activity of...

About discovery and invention

On the creative activity of the mind

Creative activity of the mind is realized differently in this or that sphere of material or spiritual culture - in science, technology, economics, art, politics, etc. For example, in natural science, the most significant result of creativity is the discovery, the establishment of new, previously unknown facts, properties and regularities of the real world. I. Kant makes this distinction between discovery and invention: discovering that there is a self on its own, remaining unknown, for example, Columbus discovered America. The invention is the creation of a previously not existing, for example, gunpowder was invented. The discovery and invention is always the completion of the desired. The truly scientific discovery is to find a principled solution to the unresolved problems that have not yet been solved. It happens that the new is only an original combination of old elements. Creative thought is one that leads to new results, either through combinations of conventional methods, or a completely new method that violates previously adopted ones. Once the principle of solving the problem is found, it ceases to be creative. The movement of thought along the beaten track is no longer creative thinking. It is thanks to creativity and progress is being made in science, technology, art, politics and in all other spheres of public life. The foundations of any discovery, according to VI Vernadsky, lie far in the depths, and like waves that run from the run to the shore, many times a human thought splashes around the prepared opening while the ninth shaft comes. In the creative activity of a scientist, the cases when the author himself is represented as if the result had suddenly "dawned on him." But for the ability suddenly grasp the essence of the matter and feel "complete confidence in the correctness of the idea" are the accumulated experience, the acquired knowledge and the hard work of the seeking thought.

The logical path of scientific and technical creativity associated with discovery and invention begins with the appearance of a corresponding conjecture, idea, hypothesis. Putting out the idea, formulating the problem, the scientist finds its solution, and then refines it by calculations, verification of experience. From the emergence of the idea to realization and verification in practice, there is often a painfully long way of searching.

Opening as a resolution of contradictions

One of the characteristic features of the creative work of thought is the resolution of contradictions. This is understandable: any scientific discovery or technical invention is the creation of a new, which is inevitably associated with the negation of the old. This is the dialectic of the development of thought. The creative process is quite logical. This is a chain of logical operations, in which one link follows the other: the formulation of the task, the foresight of the ideal end result, the search for a contradiction that hinders the achievement of the goal, the discovery of the cause of the contradiction, and finally the resolution of the contradiction.

The history of science and technology shows that the vast majority of inventions are the result of overcoming contradictions. P. Kapitsa once said that it is not so much the laws themselves that are interesting for a physicist, how many deviations from them. And this is true, because, by researching them, scientists usually discover new patterns. To make a discovery is to correctly establish the proper place of a new fact in the system of the theory as a whole, and not just to discover it. Comprehension of new facts often leads to the construction of a new theory.

Creative imagination, fantasy are closely related to the development of a person's ability to change, transform the world. With its help, man carries out both fictions and ideas, so highly raised a man over an animal. Fantasy, the dream is connected with the anticipation of the future. DI Pisarev wrote: "If a person were completely deprived of the ability to dream ... if he could not rarely run ahead and contemplate with his imagination in a whole and complete beauty the very creation that has just begun to take shape under his hands, - then I absolutely can not imagine what an incentive cause would force a person to undertake and carry out extensive and tedious work in the field of art, science and practical life. "

Fantasy has its own laws, different from the laws of the ordinary logic of thinking. Creative imagination allows for details that are hardly noticeable or completely inconspicuous for the simple eye, for single facts to grasp the general meaning of the new design and the paths leading to it. Other things being equal, a rich imagination protects a scientist from hackneyed paths. A person deprived of creative imagination and guiding idea, in an abundance of facts can not see anything special: he is used to them. Habits in scientific thinking are crutches, on which, as a rule, everything is kept. To achieve the great need independence from established prejudices. The power of creative imagination allows a person to look at familiar things in a new way and to distinguish in them features that have never been seen before.

Creative imagination is brought up by the whole course of human life, by the assimilation of the treasures of spiritual culture accumulated by mankind. Art plays an important role in the education of creative imagination. It develops imagination and gives great scope for creative ingenuity. Far enough is the fact that great thinkers and scientists possess an exceptionally high aesthetic culture, and a number of large physicists and mathematicians regard beauty and a developed sense of beauty as the heuristic principle of science, an essential attribute of scientific intuition. It is known that P. Dirac advanced the idea of ​​the existence of a proton for purely aesthetic reasons. KE Tsiolkovsky said more than once that the main ideas of his concept of space travel were formed under the strongest influence of science fiction literature.

Discovery never grows from scratch. They are the result of the constant fullness of the scientist's consciousness by the intense search for the solution of any creative tasks. In scientific discoveries and technical inventions, an important role, as many scholars note, plays an analogy. It is present in almost all discoveries, in some it is the basis. For example, in the famous discovery of universal gravitation, when Newton, unlike all his predecessors who saw the fall of an apple on the ground, saw the attraction of the apple to the earth, there was an analogy between the movement of heavenly bodies and bodies thrown upward. To the achievements of the new one, there is sharp observance: sherlock-kholms attention to "little things", the ability to notice something that hundreds and thousands of people pass by without attention.

In the process of scientific research - experimental or theoretical - the scientist seeks a solution to the problem. This search can be carried out groping, at random, and purposefully. In every creation there is a guiding idea, it is a sort of guiding force: without it, the scientist inevitably condemns himself to wandering in the dark.

Regardless of the content, any scientific discovery has some general logic of motion: from searching and isolating the facts, selecting them to process the data obtained as a result of observation and experiment. Then the thought moves towards classification, generalization and conclusions. On this basis, hypotheses arise, their selection and subsequent verification in practice, in an experiment. Then a theory is formulated and prediction is carried out. Logically, it does not exhaust the spiritual resources of creative thinking. Thus, one of the creators of quantum mechanics Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) wrote: "Do not underestimate the necessary role of imagination and intuition in scientific research. Breaking with the help of irrational jumps ... the hard circle into which deductive reasoning holds us, induction, based on imagination and intuition, makes it possible to realize the great gains of thought; It is the basis of all true achievements of the spider ... Thus (an amazing contradiction!), human science, essentially rational in its foundations and in its methods, can realize its most remarkable conquests only through dangerous sudden jumps of the mind, when abilities, freed from the heavy chains of strict reasoning, which are called imagination, intuition, wit. "

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