P. Abelar, Thomas Aquinas - Philosophy

П. Abelard

Pierre Abelard (1079 1142) - one of the brightest representatives of the spiritual life of the Middle Ages, an outstanding orator, subtle to the sophistication of a dialectic logic, an unshakable winner of public philosophical and theological contests. Contemporaries called him Socrates Gallia, Plato of the West, Aristotle of his era, a wandering knight of dialectics. He was famous as a poet, musician. Abelar was born in a knightly family, received a brilliant education. His natural gift gave him the opportunity to grasp the spirit of ancient philosophy deeper than many contemporaries. Interest in knowledge captured his soul, and already at an early age he "changed the sword of the knight to the weapon of dialectics." At the age of 21, he entered the Paris Cathedral School, led by the philosopher-theologian Guillaume de Champo (circa 1068-1121) and with whom Abelard soon began to enter into fierce controversy, always leaving them victorious. He skillfully defended the original position in disputes about universals, ie. about the nature of general concepts and their objectivity - on this issue there was an acute and protracted struggle between realists and nominalists (about which a little further). Abelard's position was to defend a substantially relaxed nominalism, called conceptualism, the essence of which is that the individual objects are real, and my shared captivity is not an empty phrase: they correspond to the DON (concept) that our spiritual reality forms .

In his philosophical theological views, Abelard largely adhered to the Blessed Augustine, believing that God rewarded people with the mind by which they will know him. Abelard believed that the shortage of most religions is that they are perceived not by reason, but by a habit inspired from childhood. An adult person turns out to be her slave and repeats what she does not feel with her heart and does not listen with her mind. The rights of the personal mind with particular insistence are defended in his main philosophical work "Yes and No" (1122). Abelard boldly pointed to the contradictions in the Holy Scripture, arguing that his goal is not the destruction of the authority of the Lord's Revelation, but purification. Disclosing the contradictions, he enthusiastically resolved their lectures. The then accepted principle of "I believe, to understand Abelard contrasted his principle "I understand, to believe". He insistently called for the participation of the mind in the perception of religion, saying that all knowledge is good and can not be hostile to the higher Good. He proclaimed that faith, "not enlightened by reason, is unworthy of man," which is not a mechanical habit, not blind trust, but a personal effort a person must gain his faith.

Thomas Aquinas

The central figure of the medieval philosophy of the late period, Thomas Aquinas (otherwise Thomas Aquinas, 1225 or 1226-1274), an outstanding philosopher and theologian, the organizer of orthodox scholasticism, the founder of one of the two dominant trends - Thomism. Heritage this thinker is very extensive. A special place is occupied by two monumental works of his - "The Sum of Theology" and Summa v. Gentiles (sometimes referred to as the "Sum of Philosophy"). He commented on the texts of the Bible and the writings of Aristotle, the follower of which was. In his works, in addition to theology and philosophy, issues of law, morality, state structure and economy are considered.

The initial principle in the teachings of Aquinas is divine revelation: a person needs to know something for his salvation that escapes his mind, through divine revelation. Aquinas distinguishes between fields of philosophy and theology: the subject of the first are the "truths of the mind," and the second is the "truths of revelation." By virtue of the fact that, according to Aquinas, the ultimate object of the one and the other and the source of all truth is Boga, there can not be a fundamental contradiction between revelation and the right mind, between theology and philosophy. However, not all of the "truths of revelation" are available to rational evidence. Philosophy is in the service of theology and is as low as it is, as far as the limited human mind is below divine wisdom. Religious truth, according to Aquinas, can not be vulnerable to philosophy, in a purely vital, almost moral sense, the love of God is more important than knowing God.

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