P. Holbach. The system of nature, D. Hume. A Treatise...

П. Holbach. The Nature System

GOLBACH Paul Henri (1723-1789) is a French philosopher of German descent (baron), born in Germany, after being educated and spent his conscious life in Paris, a foreign honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Spider (1780) . Actively collaborated in the Encyclopedia D. Diderot and J. d'Alembert. Holbach is the author of the "Natural Policy, or Conversation on the True Principles of Management" (1773), as well as a number of atheistic pamphlets: "The Unveiled Christianity", "Pocket Theology", "Common Sense" and others. Holbach systematized the views of the French materialists of the eighteenth century. Such systematization is carried out in his voluminous work "System of Nature". This book, in the creation of which, in all likelihood, Diderot participated and, possibly, some other members of his circle, was first published in 1770 under the name of Mirab (who died in 1760, a member of the French Academy) in Amsterdam (the title was specified London).

People will always be mistaken if they neglect experience for the sake of imaginative systems. Man - the product of nature, he exists in nature, is subordinated to its laws, can not be freed from it, can not - even in thought - come out of nature. In vain does his spirit wish to rush beyond the bounds of the visible world, he is always compelled to fit within it. For a creature created by nature and limited by it, there is nothing, besides that great whole, part of which it constitutes and whose effects it experiences. The supposed beings, which seem to be different from nature and standing above it, will always remain ghosts, and we will never be able to formulate correct ideas about them, as well as their whereabouts and manner of action. There is and can be nothing outside nature, embracing all that exists in itself. Let man stop looking outside the world he inhabits, capable of giving him that happiness in which nature denies him. Let him study this nature and its laws, let him contemplate its energy and the invariable course of action. Let him apply his discoveries to achieve his own happiness and silently obey the laws, from the action of which nothing can deliver him. Let him agree that he does not know the reasons, surrounded for him by an impenetrable veil. Let submissively submit to the dictates of a universal force that never returns and can never violate the laws prescribed to it by its own essence.

Thinkers clearly abused the so often produced distinction between a physical person and a spiritual person. Man is a purely physical being; A spiritual person is the same physical being, only considered under a certain angle of view, i.e. in relation to certain methods of action, due to the peculiarities of his organization. But is not this organization the work of nature? Are not the movements or modes of action available to her physical? The visible actions of a person, as well as the invisible movements occurring within him, generated by his will or thought, are the natural result, the inevitable consequence of his own device and the impulses he receives from the surrounding beings. Everything that was invented in the course of history by human thought, to change or improve the life of people and make them happier, has always been only the inevitable result of one's own essence of man and the living beings acting on him. All our institutions, our reflections and knowledge have as their goal only to deliver to us the happiness to which our own nature makes us constantly strive. Everything that we do or think, everything that we are and what we will be, is always a consequence of what the all-embracing nature has done us. All our ideas, desires, actions are a necessary result of the essence and qualities invested in us by this nature, and the circumstances that change us, which it makes us feel. In a word, art is the same nature, acting with the tools it creates.

D. Hume. A Treatise on Human Nature

HM David (1711-1776) - Scottish philosopher, historian, economist. In the Treatise on Human Nature (1739-1740) he developed the doctrine of sensory experience (the source of knowledge) as a stream of "impressions" whose causes are incomprehensible. The problem of the relation of being and spirit Hume considered insoluble. The philosopher denied the objective nature of causality and the concept of substance. Hume developing the theory of association of ideas. In ethics Hume developed the concept of utilitarianism, in political economy shared the labor theory of the value of A. Smith. The doctrine of Hume is one of the sources of Kant's philosophy, positivism and neopositivism.

All perceptions [perceptions] of the human mind are reduced to two distinct genera, which I will call impressions and ideas. The difference between the latter lies in the degree of strength and liveliness with which they hit our minds and pave their way into our thinking or consciousness. Tc perceptions [perception] that enter [into consciousness] with the greatest strength and irrepressibility, we will call impressions, and I will mean by this name all the pascha sensations, affects and emotions when they first appear in the soul. By ideas, I will mean the weak images of these impressions in thinking and reasoning.

There is one more division of our perceptions, which should be preserved and which extends to both impressions and ideas, is the division of those and others into simple and complex ones. Simple perceptions, i.e. impressions and ideas, are those that do not allow either discrimination or separation. Complex perceptions are opposite to simple, and parts can be discerned in them.

Between our impressions and ideas there is a great similarity in all the special properties, except the degree of their strength and liveliness. Some of them seem to some extent a reflection of others, so that all perceptions of our consciousness turn out to be double, appear as impressions and ideas. All our simple ideas at the first appearance come from simple impressions, which correspond to them and which they exactly represent.

Impressions can be divided into two kinds: impressions of sensation and impressions of reflection. The first kind of impressions initially arises in the soul from unknown causes. I think there is no need to prove especially that all these qualities cause the association of ideas and, when one idea is born, another is introduced naturally. It is obvious that in the process of our thinking, with the constant change of our ideas, our imagination easily passes from one idea to another which resembles it, and that this one quality is for the imagination a sufficient connecting principle and association.

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