Paradoxes Quantum Mechanics, Paradox Schrodessra cats - Philosophy of Science

Paradoxes quantum mechanics

Now consider the "paradoxes" that underlie the disputes between the "Copenhagen" and anti-Copenhagen paradigms and are the core of the philosophical problems of quantum mechanics. These paradoxes center around the topic of measurement in quantum mechanics. Analyzing the problems arising in connection with the measurement procedures, the well-known physicist W. Heitler, following the provisions of the "Copenhagen" interpretation, comes to the conclusion that "the observer appears as an indispensable part of the whole structure, and the observer with all the full potential of a conscious being" [32, p. 74]. Heitler argues that, in connection with the emergence of quantum mechanics, "it is no longer possible to maintain the division of the world into" an objective reality outside ourselves "and" us "that are aware of themselves from outside observers." The subject and the object become inseparable from each other. "We should be grateful to Heitler," says Popper, "for giving the seemingly clearest formulation of the doctrine of incorporating a subject into a physical object, The doctrine, which in one form or another is present in Heisenberg's "physical principles of the quantum theory" and in many others (in particular, von Neumann, AL ) [32].

However, no such problems in real work physics, as already said, does not arise. Within the framework of the "theophysical" quoted in paragraph 15.3, interpretation (paradigm) quantum mechanics is just as objective as classical mechanics. From the point of view presented here, the source of these "paradoxes" or in violation of the second postulate of Born's by the Copenhagenians, or the consequence of ignoring the presence of the operational part, the unlawful dissolution of the boundary between the measurement operations and the theoretical model of the phenomenon (see Chapter 9) and the following inadequate statement of questions.

In order to understand the origin of the myth about the special role of the subject and consciousness in quantum mechanics, let us consider two main "paradoxes" associated with the measurement process in quantum mechanics, the "Schrodinger cat" and "reduction" (collapse) of the wave function. "

The paradox of the Schrodessr cat "

In a known mental experiment, the cat sits on a bomb (or a vessel with hydrocyanic acid), the explosive device of which is triggered by a radioactive atom and a Geiger counter. Describing with the help of wave functions not only a radioactive atom launching an "infernal machine", but also the entire system, including a cat, Schrödinger comes to a paradox [22]. The paradox is that when applied to the entire system, including a cat, a quantum mechanical description, along with supposed "clean" states corresponding to the living and dead cat, described by the wave functions Ψw and ΨM, respectively, according to the superposition principle something must also correspond to the superposition of wave functions of these pure states Ψ = aΨzh + 6ΨM, i.e. the state when the cat is "neither alive nor dead", which clearly contradicts common sense.

Reasons for the paradox two. The first is that one dimension, in accordance with Born's postulates, does not determine the state. The state corresponds to probability distributions, the measurement of which requires a series of measurements, but then the paradox collapses. That is, this paradox suggests "Copenhagen" attitude to measurement. The second reason is that here the whole measuring instrument, consisting of a Geiger counter, a fuse, dynamite and a cat, was placed inside the physical system, which is described incorrectly by the wave function, since it refers to the operational part.

For Schrödinger, his formulation of the problem follows from the belief that "observation is as natural a process as any other, and itself can not cause a violation of the natural flow of natural processes" [39, p. 81]. The basis of this belief is the philosophical in its essence statement that "if the quantum theory is capable of giving a complete description of everything that can occur in the universe, then it should be able to describe the very process of observation through the wave functions of the measuring apparatus and the system under investigation. In addition, in principle, quantum theory should describe the researcher himself, observing phenomena with the help of appropriate equipment and studying the results of the experiment ... through the wave functions of the various atoms making up this researcher " [5, p. 668] (compare the presentation of Laplace's Mach program given in §2.1). Hence the mythical problems of "holding the exact boundary between the objective and the subjective" in quantum mechanics [11, p. 290].

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