Personality and I - Fundamentals of Philosophy

Personality and I

Man as a generic being is concretized in real individuals. The concept of an individual indicates an individual as a representative of the higher biological species Homo sapiens and society. Each individual has the right to his own peculiarity - this is his natural given, developed by socialization. The individual as a singular single integrity is characterized by a number of properties - the integrity of the morphological and psychophysiological organization, stability in interaction with the environment, activity. The concept of the individual is only the first designation of the subject field of human research, containing the possibilities of further concretization with an indication of its qualitative specificity in terms of personality and individuality.

At present, there are two basic concepts of personality: personality as a functional (role ) character and personality as essential characteristic.

The first concept is based on the concept of a person's social function, or rather, the notion of a social role. Despite the importance of this aspect of understanding personality (it is of great importance in modern applied sociology), it does not allow us to reveal the inner, deep human world, fixing only its behavior, which does not always and necessarily express its real essence.

A deeper interpretation of the concept of personality reveals it no longer in the functional, but in the essential plane: it is here a clot of regulatory and spiritual potencies, the center of self-consciousness, the source of will and the core of character, the subject of free action within the society and inner life of man. Personality is the individual focus and expression of social relations and human functions , subject of cognition and transformation of the world , < strong> rights and obligations , ethical , aesthetic and all other social norms.

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A person is a self-aware and outlooked person who has reached an understanding of his social functions, his place in the world, comprehending himself as a subject of historical creativity, as a link of a chain of generations, including related ones, one vector directed to the past, and the other to the future. Personality qualities of man are derived from two moments - from his self-conscious mind and from his social way of life. The field of the manifestation of personal properties is his life - individual and social.

To illustrate the dependence of personal development of a person on the development of his self-awareness and the surrounding society, mentally glance into the depths of centuries. When does the person appear in the philosophical sense of the word? Along with the appearance of man as a biological species? No. Our distant ancestor, who was in a pristine environment and at the initial stages of the formation of consciousness, was not yet a person, but he was already a man. Personality is a socially developed person. Not only historically, but also genetically a person becomes a person but as far as the creation of a social and intellectual culture and in proportion to his individual involvement in it. A child, especially at a very early age, is, of course, a person, but not a person. It only picks up a person, he still has to become it. If a person's social connections are broken or pathological processes in the body occur (mental disorders, etc.), the personality disintegrates completely or partially, depending on the strength of such unfavorable and tragic circumstances.

Thus, personality is the resultant function of a person's social and biological principles . Without any of these ingredients, the personality does not take place; moreover, even with partial infringement of either the biological or the social principle in man, this deformation will immediately affect the person.

However, the personality does not reduce to its bodily, anthropological, features, nor to its diverse social functions. Personality is a closed in itself integrity, its bodily and social manifestations are its attributes. Both the biological and the social play equally decisive roles in the genesis of the personality.

What is the personality of the individual people, whom we know as representatives of various spheres of activity - writer, seller, doctor, digger, clerk? What is that inner spiritual temple, which is closed to people, but open to God? This question is asked by SN Bulgakov. It can be answered in this way: this inner spiritual element is primarily a worldview, understood in the broadest sense of the word: than the person lives, what he considers to be the most sacred and expensive, like he lives, Like serves its shrine. To know a person as a person is to learn the basic twists of his mental state, the "spider's web" his thoughts, feelings, desires and hopes, his value orientations, his faith and beliefs.

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The personality is formed in the process of activity, communication. In other words, the formation of it is in essence the process of socialization of the individual. This process occurs by the internal formation of its unique unique appearance and requires the individual to be productive activity, expressed in the constant correction of his actions, behavior, actions. This, in turn, calls for the development of self-esteem on the basis of developing self-awareness. In this process, the peculiar mechanism of reflection is worked out. Self-consciousness and self-esteem in aggregate form the main core, around which a unique "variety" is formed, unique in the richness and variety of the subtlest shades. personality, inherent only to her specificity.

Personality is the totality of its three main components: biogenetic instincts, the impact of social factors (environment, conditions, norms, regulators) and its psychosocial core - I. And what is I? This is the integral core of the spiritual world of man , its regulatory center. It is, as it were, the inner basis of the personality that has become a phenomenon mentality, determining the nature, the sphere of motivation, manifested in a certain direction, the way to relate their interests to the public, the level of claims. I - this is the basis for the formation of beliefs, value orientations, in short, world outlook. It is also the basis for the formation of the social feelings of a person (self-esteem, duty, responsibility, conscience, moral and aesthetic principles, etc.).

Relatively to the person, the pure I represent a much more complex subject for research. I am that which at every given moment is conscious, while the empirical person is only one of the conscious realities. In other words, the pure I am the thinking subject , the highest self of our one-whole spirit. Soul, spirit, transcendental I - these are the heterogeneous names for this subject of thought and will. Personality becomes a person only if it has a self-conscious self. One can say, I am the supreme , the regulator-predicting of the spiritual and semantic center of the personality. strong>

The boundaries of the personality are much wider than the boundaries of not only the human body, but also its spiritual world. The boundaries of personality can be likened to circles that diverge on water from some center: the nearest circles are the fruits of creation, close people, personal property, friends (they are, after all, the mirror of our essence). Outgoing circles are poured into the morse of the society and further into the abyss of the Cosmos.

Subjectively, for an individual, a person acts as an image of his Self - it is the basis of internal self-esteem and represents what the individual sees himself in the present, the future, what he would like to be, what could be if wanted. In this case, the individual evaluates himself directly, and indirectly - through the evaluation of others. Listen to how a person evaluates others, and you will recognize his self-esteem: the evaluation of others is a kind of mirror of self-esteem. The process of correlating the image of the self with real life circumstances, resulting in motivations and the direction of the personality, serves as a basis for self-education, i.e. for a continuous process of improvement, development. Man as a person is not a certain given. He is a process that requires relentless mental work.

The main resultant personality, its spiritual core is worldview. It is a privilege of a person who has risen to a high level of spirituality. The man asks himself: "Who am I? Why did I come to this world? What is the meaning of my life, my destiny? Do I live according to the dictates of being or not? Only having developed this or that world outlook, the person, self-determining in life, gets an opportunity consciously, purposefully to act, realizing its essence. A worldview is like a bridge connecting the person and the world around her, this view of the world , going into it.

Simultaneously with the formation of the world view, character - is the psychological core of the person, which stabilizes his activity. "Only in character does the individual acquire his permanent certainty" .

A particular component of the personality is its morality. The moral essence of personality is "tested" to much. Social circumstances often lead to the fact that the person faced with a choice does not always follow himself, the ethical imperative of his personality. At such times he turns into a puppet of social forces, and this causes irreparable damage to the integrity of his personality. People react differently to trials: one person can "flatten out" under the hammer of social violence, and the other - to temper. Only highly moral and deeply intellectual persons experience an acute sense of tragedy from the consciousness of their "non-personality", i.e. inability to do what dictates the innermost sense of the Self. Only a freely manifested person can maintain a sense of dignity. The measure of the subjective freedom of the individual is determined by its moral imperative and is an indicator of the degree of development of the individual.

Thus, a person is a measure of a person's integrity. Without inner integrity there is no personality.

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