In modern economic science, along with economic theory, the history of the economy and the history of economic science, the philosophy of economics is also singled out. It can be interpreted, on the one hand, as a philosophical comprehension of economic reality, and on the other hand, as an integral part of an integral philosophical doctrine, ie, as the philosophical foundations of economic science (see, for example, [4, pp. 231]). In the first sense, philosophy appears as a definite paradigm for studying the economy. The economic aspects of philosophical knowledge proper come to the fore. In the second sense, the focus is on philosophical and methodological theories, relying on which economists built their concepts. Let us first consider how both of these aspects interacted at different stages in the development of human society and how this interaction contributed to a change in the subject and method of economic science.

Development of the subject of economic theory

Saving - the science of educating worthy citizens

In the development of the subject of economic theory, three stages can be distinguished: economy, political economy, economy (Scheme 22.1.1).

With the emergence of the first class societies in the Ancient East, the problems of the organization and management of the state (tsarist-temple) economy appeared at the center of economic thought, resulting in special works (" "Guanzi"), as well as theories (the teachings of Confucius, etc.) aimed at maintaining stability in the state and society. However, the views of the ancient Eastern thinkers had only an indirect effect on the formation of economic science, which was born in the bosom of European civilization. Economic theory originally arose in ancient society as economy - the science of home economics, the household. Its goal was to raise worthy citizens. The term saving was first proposed by Xenophon. It also occurs in Aristotle (384-322 BC) in the framework of the doctrine of justice ( Aristotle. "Politics"), Book 1, 1256b- 1258b). Aristotle distinguished two types of economic activity: economy - economy for self-sufficiency and hrematist - farm for the purpose of enrichment. He considered fair economy based on subsistence economy, because it was the basis of the ancient society. To the economy, Aristotle, indeed, attributed and retail trade, because in it, in his opinion, the decisive role played by the satisfaction of needs. Aristotle takes a critical view of hremmatism, believing that the art of making money, the functioning of trading and usurious capital, has a source of wealth for circulation, therefore, chre- matistics, from the standpoint of Aristotle, is unnatural.

The main directions of modern economic theory

Scheme. 22.1.1. The main directions of modern economic theory

An important problem, which was developed by the economic thought of Antiquity, was slavery. In its interpretation, ancient society has traveled a long way from the complete justification of slavery as the "barbarian lot" when a slave is considered an "animate tool of labor", "income-producing property" (in the writings of Aristotle), to the recognition of fundamental equality between all people (in the works of early Christianity). The idea of ​​equality is closely linked with the affirmation of the universal duty of labor: labor is the basis of people's lives, and therefore the distribution must be carried out according to work. Moral condemnation in early Christian literature is subject to social inequality and usury. Radical moments of the original Christianity were ideological sources of peasant-plebeian heresies of the Middle Ages and utopian socialism.

In the works of medieval Scholastic scholars (university professors), economic problems were also considered in the framework of the doctrine of justice. The only difference was that economic issues in the era of feudalism were interpreted from the position of the Holy Scripture within the framework of canon law. Christian doctrine has become an important means for overcoming controversial attitudes toward work characteristic of Antiquity.

In the medieval era, when an individual is absorbed by a corporation, and a person is overshadowed by society, the school takes on enormous importance. The very word scholasticism owes its origin to the school. Affiliation with the school determines the themes of research, their ideological focus and the method of proof. This also applies to the canon law, through which they tried to regulate economic processes. Economic problems were considered from the standpoint of morality, moral justice, from the standpoint of the common good as the ultimate criterion of people's activity. Thus, in economy, the normative aspect prevailed over the positive, the irrational (myth-creating) - over the rational (scientific), the proper - over the existent, the deductive method - over the inductive.

Strengthening the urban system, on the one hand, the gradual transition of peasants from corvée to natural, and later money, on the other, exacerbated the contradictions between town and country. The ratio of prices between urban handicraft and rural agricultural products reflected a clash of class interests. Therefore, the development of the doctrine of the "fair price", i.e. such a price, which, according to the opinion of medieval scholastic scholars (Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scott, William Ockham, etc.), would not only reimburse the costs of production and circulation, but also ensure the existence corresponding to each estate. Fair Price therefore it is considered, for example, by Thomas Aquinas (1225/26 - 1274) from the point of view of the Christian moral norms {Thomas Aquinas . 5umma Theologica. Secunda Secundae, quaestio. LXXVII-LXXVIII). Biblical texts were also widely used to condemn usury as an unnatural means of enrichment, as money-grubbing, destroying the human soul. Starting with the prohibition of usury, the Catholic Church gradually took one position after another and ended by the fact that by the end of the Middle Ages it had actually legalized it. It was sufficient to represent the percentage as the result of labor, costs, risk, or form a "partnership" in order to avoid condemnation of the church.

In conditions where Christianity sanctified the existing feudal system, progress was impossible without the reform of the Catholic Church. In the struggle against Catholicism, the Reformation theorists (M. Luther, W. Zwingli, J. Calvin) used the antisocial orientation of the original Christianity. An important role in this was played by the work of M. Luther, who distinguished late feudal money-grubbing (the accumulation of initial capital by any means, including dirty methods) and early capitalist entrepreneurship (based on the laws of the market, and on methods of feudal robbery). J. Calvin goes further, developing the doctrine of divine predestination. If you correctly understand your purpose, the activity will be accompanied by success, which finds its final expression in the growth of money wealth.

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