Philosophical aspect of the development of science
Q. Vernadsky wrote that "science is the manifestation of separate free human beings, the creation of their free, conscious will," and develops it in "communication and wide interaction with other aspects of the spiritual life of mankind" as part of world culture ("Science is one for all mankind"). Nils Bohr also spoke about this when he awarded him the Nobel Prize: on the relationship between science and culture, the role of the philosophical worldview as a necessary condition for scientific activity, etc. VI Vernadsky writes: "We have never observed science in the history of mankind without philosophy and , by studying the history of scientific thinking, we see that philosophical concepts and philosophical ideas enter as a necessary, all-pervasive element of science at all times of its existence. " The reason for this, according to VI Vernadsky, is that "the apparatus of scientific thinking is imperfect; it is improved through the philosophical work of human consciousness. Here, philosophy in a powerful way, in turn, contributes to the discovery, development and growth of science. " Leading role in this context belongs to the philosophy of science - one of the directions of philosophical knowledge. At the same time, the philosophy of science is one of the trends of modern philosophical thought, interconnected with other currents, schools, directions. In the initial stage, the Vienna circle, which became the ideological and organizational nucleus of the logical logical positivism movement that originated in the philosophy department of the University of Vienna in 1922, can be included here. It included R. Carnap, F. Vaisman, G. Feigel, O. Neurath, M. Schlick, and others. Supporters of logical positivism emerged as receivers of a positivist subjective-idealistic tradition, coming from Berkeley, Hume. They abandoned the old positivism, the psychological and biological approach to cognition, and tried to combine subjective-idealistic empiricism with the method of logical analysis. The ultimate goal of this approach was to attempt to reorganize scientific knowledge in the system of "unified science", information of philosophy to the logical analysis of the language.
By the end of the 30's. XX century. The Vienna circle ceased to exist, and in the 1960s. - lost its importance as an independent scientific trend and a logically positive idea.A notable trace in the development of philosophy was left by K. Popper, proposing his philosophical concept of critical rationalism, the theory of the growth of scientific knowledge, falsificationism as a criterion for demarcating science from "metaphysics". in contrast to the principle of verification used by logical positivism. Verification is a concept used in the methodology of science to denote the process of establishing the truth of scientific statements as a result of their empirical verification.
According to Popper's concept, the empirical and theoretical levels of knowledge are organically linked. The growth of scientific knowledge consists in the promotion of bold hypotheses and the implementation of their resolute refutations, as a result of which conditions and methods for solving more complex scientific problems appear.
Popper's ideas have developed in the idealistic direction of English and American philosophy of "critical realism" and are used to contrast between the object of knowledge and the knowledge of the subject about it.
One of the leaders of the so-called historical school in the methodology and philosophy of science was the American scientist Kun Thomas, who put forward the concept of the historical dynamics of scientific knowledge. In it, the author presents the history of science as an alternation of episodes of competition between different scientific schools. The basis of the model of scientific activity of such schools by their members is a set of theoretical standards, methodological norms, value criteria, worldview.
Within the framework of this model, according to Kuhn, there is a gradual production of the systems entering into it, as a result, this gives a synergistic effect. Kun recognizes the objective nature of scientific knowledge, at the same time considers its truth to be relative and rejects any direction in the development of science.
Kuhn revealed some dialectical characteristics of the development of science, but mistakenly opposed the elements of discreteness and continuity, relativity and absoluteness in the development of scientific knowledge.
Some ideas Kuhn, Popper developed an American scientist of Austrian origin - a representative of the philosophy of science PK Feyerabend.
Theological concept of Feyerabend ("epistemological anarchism") was the result of criticism of the positivist methodology of some ideas of Popper and Kuhn and is based on the principle of the proliferation (multiplication) of theories: the more theories incompatible with the recognized, the more dynamic the development of science.
The principle of proliferation is designed to justify pluralism in the methodology of scientific knowledge. The combination of pluralism with the thesis of incommensurability of theories eventually generates anarchism: every scientist can invent his own theories, not paying attention to criticism and contradictions. According to Feyerabend, the activity of the scientist should not be subject to any rational norms. It is necessary to free society from the "dictate of science", separating science from the state. However, his concept strongly contradicts real scientific practice.
A retrospective look at the historical context of the development of the philosophy of science shows how important is the connection between science and philosophy, their interpenetration and mutual influence. Scientists recognize that we will never be able to completely separate the scientific and philosophical aspects of human understanding.
At the same time, philosophy and science as specific forms of cognitive activity share conditional boundaries - prerequisites for cognitive activity.
This refers, first, to the reality of the condition knowledge (historical, sociocultural, etc.), and secondly, specific goals, attitudes, motives activities that given the appropriate landmarks and direction of cognitive activity, thirdly, the principles of cognition, fourthly, the style of thinking, conditioned by a system of concepts adopted in various branches of knowledge.Therefore, only through the convergence of scientific knowledge, obtained as a result of the cognitive activity of science and the philosophy of science, can we understand and explain the contradiction of the picture of the world, complex economic and social problems.
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