Philosophy and worldview
Philosophy as the theoretical core of the world view.
Philosophy is the theoretical basis of the world outlook, or its theoretical core around which a kind of spiritual cloud of generalized everyday views of worldly wisdom is formed, which is a vital level of worldview. But the worldview also has a higher level - a generalization of the achievements of science and art, the basic principles of religious views and experience, as well as the subtlest sphere of the moral life of society. In general, worldview could be defined as follows: This is a generalized system of views of a person (and society) on the world as a whole, on its own place in it , understanding and assessment of the person's sense of their lives and activities, the fate of mankind; a collection of generalized scientific , philosophical, socio-political } legal, moral, religious , Aesthetic value orientations , beliefs , beliefs and ideals of people.
Depending on how the question of the relationship between spirit and matter is solved, the worldview is called idealistic or materialistic, religious or atheistic.
Materialism is a philosophical view that recognizes substance, the essential basis of being matter. According to materialism, the world is a moving matter. The spiritual beginning, consciousness is a property of highly organized matter - the brain.
Idealism is a philosophical worldview, according to which the true being does not belong to matter, but to the spiritual principle - to the mind, to the will.
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The author of this book proceeds from the premise that the material and the spiritual are a cohesive whole. Beyond this principle, we can not understand the meaning of existence, its regulatory principles, objective expediency and harmony in the universe. Within the framework of materialism alone, we are basically unable to answer the question of who so wisely shapes everything and performs a regulatory function. Materialism is incompatible with the recognition of objective expediency in the world, and this is an indisputable fact in the being of being.
The ratio of philosophy and worldview can also be characterized as follows: the concept of "worldview" wider the concept of "philosophy". Philosophy is a form of social and individual consciousness that is constantly theoretically grounded, has a greater degree of scientific than just a worldview, say, at the everyday level of common sense, available to a person who sometimes does not even know how to write or read.
In the world view, the integrity of man's spirituality finds its completion. Philosophy as a one-piece worldview is not only a matter for every thinking person, but for the whole of mankind, which, like an individual, has never lived and can not live by purely logical judgments, but realizes its spiritual life in all its colorful fullness and wholeness its various moments. The worldview exists in the form of a system of value orientations, ideals, beliefs and beliefs and is expressed through the way of life of a person and society.
The final definition of the relationship between philosophy and worldview can be formulated as follows: philosophy is a system of fundamental ideas in the worldview of man and society.
On value orientations and faith. Any object, any event, in general, everything has an objective value or, if you want, meaning, significance. At the same time, values are not equal - they also have an objectively different degree of significance for us. We value things, events with purely emotional, religious, moral, aesthetic, scientific, philosophical, and pragmatic points of view. You can say, for example, that things, like people, can be just pleasant. A different level of evaluation of what we perceive as sublime, sacred, sacred.
The Pasha soul has both innate and bred properties, the ability to be motivated to act but to a particular value, which is expressed in the corresponding experience. Each person has a unique, individual way of relating to values of one kind or another, which is precisely the essence of his value orientation. This is also manifested at the level of ideological positions, when it comes to the relationship to art, religion, the choice of philosophical predilections and, above all, moral orientations. So, for a deeply believing person, the determining force in his spiritual life is religion, that is, religion. those highest and last values that he recognizes above himself and himself, and the practical relation in which he becomes to these values.
Note that the true essence of a person is determined not by its individual qualities and sometimes random actions, but by the prevailing interests and value orientations. The life of a society depends to a large extent on the prevailing world outlook, on what beliefs and ideals professed the educated part of society that considers the highest value on the scale of the entire hierarchy of values.
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The problem of values in the world outlook is closely related to such phenomena of the spirit as faith, ideals and beliefs. Faith, affirmed at the deep moral need of the soul, gracefully animated by the "warm breath of the senses," is one of the pillars of the spiritual world of man and humanity. Can it be that a person throughout his whole life does not believe in anything? This can not be - at least slumbering faith, but certainly there is in the soul even a man about whom they say that he is Thomas the unbeliever.
Faith is a phenomenon that has a force that is irremovable and of great vitality - a person can not live without faith at all. Our mind, according to B. Pascal, with all the power of his imperiousness requires a man of faith - the mind knows that beyond it there is an abyss that is inaccessible to him, but in it something is grasped by the power of intuition, on which faith grows. The act of faith is a super-conscious feeling , feeling , a sort of inner "clairvoyance" , more or less characteristic of every person in especially artistic natures, who have a philosophically oriented mind. In addition, a person has a moral or, more precisely, a moral-psychological need for faith - without it, as without proof knowledge, to live not only spiritually, but also practically impossible. Yes, no one lives - neither the very notorious pessimist, nor militant atheist.
One can not identify faith in general with religious faith. Any atheist is also full of faith - in himself, in his convictions, in his loved ones, in the fact that the world is "moving matter given to us in sensations." After all, no one has ever proved it and no one can ever prove it, one can only believe it. It is impossible to consider the teaching of physics about matter to be exhaustive - this is only a facet or a cut of knowledge, and not an integral picture of everything. Or take another example. We believed in a bright future - communism. But is this scientific knowledge? Of course not. This is a real, and blind, faith. We believed in the "brilliant leader and teacher of all nations". What is this, if not mythology, an atheistic religion? Here, only the icons are different, but the faith is real, and the fiercely wicked is the religion of idolatry.
In the very normal concept of religious faith proper, it is that, as G. Hegel says, it is not just knowledge about God, about our attitude and the relation of the world to him, but also about the imperishability of our soul; this knowledge is not just a historical or rational knowledge - the heart is interested in it, it has an influence on our feelings and on the determination of our will. This is partly due to the fact that thanks to faith our duties and laws gain great power, being presented to us as the laws of God, in part because the idea of the loftiness and kindness of God towards us fills our heart with admiration and feelings of humility and gratitude . Thus, religious faith raises morality and its motives to a new, more majestic height. Religious motives are filled with refined feelings, which the true believer gains a soft tone of humanity and goodness. So, thanks to this, the beautiful mind and the delightful power of spiritual art (first of all music, vocal, painting, icon painting), the cold mind melts in the sunbeams of divine grace, bringing peace and joy of being.
Speaking of religion as a form of social consciousness, we mean the concepts of God and immortality and what is connected with these concepts, as they constitute the conviction of all the world's parodies, influence their thoughts and deeds; all this elevates and ennobles the spirit of the nation, awakening in her soul a sometimes dormant sense of dignity, not allowing the people to humiliate and humiliate others.
On the ideals. Ideals are an important part of the worldview. Man in his life, in his constant modeling of the future, can not do without striving for an ideal. Each of us feels the need for ideals - without them there is not a single intelligent person or society in the world; without them there could not be a humanity.
Many great minds have thought about what an ideal is. Ivan Turgenev exclaimed: "Sorry, one who lives without an ideal!" Keeping in mind precisely the ideal, K. Marx wrote that the ideas that take possession of our thought subordinate our convictions to ourselves, and to them reason rests our conscience, these are the bonds from which one can not break free without tearing his heart. At all times, argued R. Rolland, there were people who gave their lives for their ideals. According to Seneca, when a person does not know to which pier he is on his way, for him no wind will be a by-passing. LN Tolstoy also thought in the same way: the ideal is a guiding star; without it there is no solid direction, but there is no direction, no life.
After throwing a retrospective look at history, we will see that people have decided on the most grandiose matters, if the ideal was ahead of them, even if far away.
The social ideal - is a dream about the most perfect arrangement of a society where everything is "fair", and about a harmoniously developed personality, and about reasonable interpersonal relationships, and about the moral, and about the beautiful, and about the ili -
Implementation of their capabilities for the benefit of mankind. Ideals, as a rule, are turned into the future, but it happens that they are found in the past (remember the Renaissance). What is true in these ideals is preserved in the world view and ultimately realized in practice, in life, and untruth ideals, like utopia, will sooner or later be discarded.
About beliefs. Beliefs are a kind of golden dome of the worldview temple. Persuasion is the established system of views , which have firmly established in our soul , not only in the sphere of consciousness , but also deeper in the subconscious , in the sphere of intuition being brightly colored by our senses. In belief, reason fuses with the world of feelings and forms of behavior, it delineates the personality, giving qualitative certainty to the spiritual world. The belief system is the worldview. In the sphere of belief, a transaction is impossible - two different unconditional principles of persuasion in the soul of one and the same integral and principled personality can not be. Describing the nature of belief, SN Bulgakov wrote: "An extremely important intermediate step between faith and knowledge is the so-called belief. Persuasion is subjectively the most valuable part of our opinions for us, but at the same time it is possible to be convinced only that it does not have the character of logical indisputability, but is supported more or less by faith. One can not be convinced, for example, that today such and such a number .
Beliefs are the core of the worldview and the spiritual core of the individual. A person without deep convictions is not a person in the high sense of the word; it's like a bad actor playing the imposed roles, ultimately eclipsing his own self. It is known that it is ideological conviction that allows a person in a moment of mortal danger to overcome the strongest instinct of self-preservation, sacrifice life and perform heroic deeds. History is the witness that many great truths and principles of social justice are "paid for" the blood of their convinced defenders who went to the fire, the gallows, served the hard labor, died in exile.
Beliefs are born and developed in the course of our becoming, in communion with nature, in sharing with the treasures of culture. And our will (however strong it may be) can not be changed - it is something rooted in the depths of our souls. However, our beliefs can change (and even significantly) during periods when the paradigm shift (from Greek paradeigma - example, sample) occurs and a fundamental revaluation of all values, t .e. at critical periods in the life of society, as well as individual development.
Therefore, beliefs are not only nascent, but also degenerate. Examples of this great variety. Changes in convictions can not be condemned if they have valid grounds. It is permissible for a mature person to change his beliefs about a particular event, a fact, or as a result of a new, more thorough study of them, or due to some significant change that has occurred in these facts themselves. Speaking about this with reference to himself, FM Dostoevsky claimed that it is very difficult for him to tell the story of the degeneration of his convictions. But according to Leo Shestov, the story of the degeneration of beliefs is first and foremost the story of their birth. Beliefs are born again in a person at an age when he has enough experience and observation to consciously follow this great and profound mystery of his soul.
Such are the components of the worldview, the theoretical core of which is the system of philosophical knowledge. In order to understand this system, of course, in the most general terms, we must get acquainted with the history of philosophy. Its history is first of all its creators - the great philosophers of all times and peoples. In the final section of the book "History of Philosophy in the Faces" the reader can read about the most outstanding of them, about those who contributed to the totality of knowledge that make up modern philosophy.
Studying this section, you will certainly pay attention to the fact that no matter what time philosophers work and whatever views they adhere to, they all try to solve the same basic issues facing humanity - the meaning of life, the cognizability of the world , the role and place in it of a person. One of such fundamental questions of life, and therefore of philosophy, is the question of being, to which we are now considering.
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