PHILOSOPHY IN ROME
Philosophy penetrates into Rome not earlier than II c. BC. We say "gets through", as the Romans get the philosophy "out of the hands" Greeks, who became their philosophical mentors. However, this did not happen immediately. Before Cicero declares the highest ethical ideal "humanity", consisting of Roman valor and Greek education, there was to pass not one decade of distrust to the Hellenic teachings and even to the very phenomenon of philosophical thought.
The first Roman author of the texts, in which the philosophical teachings were set forth, was Quintus Ennius (239-169 AD) , by origin a Greek. These were poems "Epiharm"; and Evgemer & quot ;. In the first poem, the doctrines of the Sicilian poet Epiharma, who lived in the 5th century, were expounded. BC, and, but some evidence that influenced even the work of Plato. The second was devoted to the ideas of Evgemer (circa 340-260 BC), a Greek writer who claimed that the gods are deified great rulers of the past. Since the Roman pantheon of the gods included Romulus, the legendary founder of the city, Yevemer's ideas in the Eternal City were very popular. They were not understood in the educational key, but as an indication of the reality of the apotheosis (deification) of great personalities. In the future, this teaching will be one of the foundations of the cult of the Roman emperors.
In 155 BC. Rome in the Athenian embassy is visited by the peripatetic of Critolay , Stoic Diogenes and one of the most famous Platonists, skeptics - Carnead . Speeches of the latter caused in the Roman environment a real stir. However, not all Greek teachers were awarded such a reception: many, on the contrary, were expelled from Rome (so, the Epicureans of Alkey and Filisk were expelled for the "immorality" of their teachings).
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Initially, interest in philosophy existed only in the upper strata of Roman society. A huge role in this process was played by the Publius Cornelia Scipio Emilian (185-129 BC) , which included many of the most prominent Roman politicians of the time. It was this circle that created the conditions for the stay in Rome of the outstanding stoic philosopher Paieti, whose sermon laid the foundation for interest in Stoicism, which later spread among the Roman aristocracy. However, for a long time attempts at an independent exposition of philosophical theories by various Roman authors were rather superficial.
Fundamental changes occur in the first century. BC, when the teaching of Greek wisdom begins to be regarded as something more than leisure for educated people. In the conditions of civil strife and the systemic crisis of the Roman state, Greek philosophy begins to be perceived both as a teacher in political wisdom and as a means of moral comfort.
Cicero and the translation project Greek philosophy in Latin
Mark Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) is a Roman politician, orator, writer and philosopher. His oratorical skills, legal and political career and participation in the turbulent events of the middle of the 1st century. BC. deserve to be the subject of a special description. We will only touch on the philosophical side of the creativity of this remarkable Roman thinker.
Interest in pursuing rhetoric and philosophy woke up in Cicero in 79-77 years. BC, during a trip to Athens and Rhodes. There young Cicero spoke with Greek philosophers - academicians, Stoics and Epicureans. After returning from exile (58-57 BC), caused by the fierce internal political struggle in Rome, Cicero tried to formulate his own political philosophy. As a supporter of an aristocratic republic, he argued that the state is an asset and the cause of a people relying on the law, Roman valor and education of citizens (see his writings on the "State" and "On the Laws"). Laws express the natural reasonableness of nature: they are related to the choice of the best way to act, and with the requirement of strict observance of all legal norms. Although, in the opinion of Cicero, "the number of" political rights among different classes of citizens may be different, before the law they are all equal.
Cicero was convinced of the special status of the Roman people, for the salvation of which the gods in times of trouble are sent to the earth "divine soul". Messianism Cicero played an important role in the formation of the cult of the emperor, although Cicero himself was a convinced Republican.
After the battle of Pharsal (48 BC) and reconciliation with Julius Caesar, Cicero again left politics, devoting his leisure to writing philosophical treatises. It was in the late period of his creative work that he created the most important philosophical works, among which the "Tusculan talks", "Academician" and "On the Nature of the Gods." After the death of Caesar (44 BC) Cicero was in the camp of the enemies of one of the new rulers of Rome, Mark Antony, and was killed but his order.
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Cicero became the creator of Latin rhetorical and scientific prose. For him there was no contradiction between philosophical and rhetorical attitudes - he unites them in the idea of humanity ( humanitas ). Cicero says that the study of philosophy is for him "consolation" (a well-known Hellenistic motive). In his philosophical writings, Cicero implemented the translation program Ancient Greek philosophy in Latin and its adaptation to the peculiarities of Roman thinking. He was most interested in ethics, theology and the theory of knowledge, the sciences that answer questions about how to live, who is the supreme authority and what a person is capable of knowing. Physical issues were not at the center of his attention, since they were to a lesser extent connected with the ethical-behavioral side of wisdom. Philosophy, he said, "heals the souls, sifts the empty cares, relieves the passions, drives away fears", he said, "the philosophy of Cicero considered" cultivation of the soul. " .
For Cicero, Greek philosophy is valuable not in the "school" division: he regards it as an integral phenomenon, emphatically critical only of epicureanism. And this is not only a tribute to the syncretic philosophical ideas of the first century. BC: Cicero seeks to open for the Romans "foreign" art in its entirety, and not in doctrinal particulars. The greatest sympathy for Cicero was caused by academic and Stoic doctrines, which he, however, interpreted in his own way. Academic skepticism was supplemented by his call to live in accordance with intuitively clear to us human nature. Together with Philo from Larissa, he accepts the concept of persuasiveness and the consistency of perceptions as a criterion of practical correctness, which allows him to appeal to natural intelligence in ethics in the same as in political philosophy. The stoic idea of "morally proper" was interpreted by him as a "duty", which the Roman magistrate must perform. Thus, the Roman state in the eyes of Cicero turned into a bearer of moral values and moral functions/responsibilities, which left a mark on all subsequent European political philosophy.
The result of Cicero's activities was not only the widespread dissemination of the skills of philosophizing in the Roman nobility (aristocracy), but also the creation of the Latin philosophical terminology, which Western culture inherited for a long time.
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