Philosophy of Art - Fundamentals of Philosophy

Philosophy of Art

The aesthetic attitude to reality, contained in all types of human activity, could not but become the subject of special reproduction. So a special kind of human activity in which the aesthetic, embodied in the artistic, is both the content , and the way and the goal, is the art ; he never gave up a man, always answered his needs and his ideal, always helped him in seeking this ideal - he was born with a man, developed alongside his historical life. " .

Art serves as a means of man's self-expression, and therefore the subject of art is both the relationship of man and the world, and the person himself in all his dimensions - psychological, social, moral and everyday. Humanities - and psychology, and sociology, and ethics, etc. - also have their subject matter, but they all view it with any one and moreover a deliberately limited point of view. Art not only takes a person in its wholeness, but touches all the most profound and unexplored science strata of that most amazing phenomenon in the world, which is man - the mystery of the secrets of nature. Art speaks to us in its own particular language, which must be learned so that it becomes clear. Art provides the completeness of the creation and perception of its subject, in contrast to the conscious partiality of the approach inherent in science.

Art, born in primitive society, acquired its basic features in Antiquity, but at that time it did not immediately begin to be thought of as a special kind of activity. Up to Plato (including himself), art also called the ability to build houses, and skills of navigation, and doctoring, and government, and poetry, and philosophy, and rhetoric. The process of separating the actual aesthetic activity, i.e. art, in our understanding, began in specific crafts (here it led to the creation, for example, of ornaments), and then was transferred to the field of spiritual activity, where the aesthetic was also not first isolated from the utilitarian, ethical and cognitive.

Two features are a feature of art. Firstly, this world is not a product of pure fiction, which has nothing to do with the real world. The author can have an exceptionally powerful imagination, but what is depicted in the work of art, whatever direction and genre it relates to, is a kind of reality created by analogy with objective reality.

Secondly, this reality, called the artistic picture of the world, is only a more or less plausible image of life, but not life itself. The artist intuitively invests in his work in addition to what enters into his design, and something that comes from the sphere of the unconscious. As a result, a genuine work of art contains inexhaustible interpretations, as if an infinite number of designs were inherent in the author. This is facilitated by a significant subjectivity of the perception of art. After all, its content is not fully transmitted in rational terms of language, as in science. For emotions, their terminological designation is only a sign - under a single sign lies a huge amount of individual feelings and perceptions respectively.

Art, unlike all other activities, is an expression of the inner essence of man in its wholeness, which disappears in the private sciences and in any other concrete activity, where man realizes only one of his own side, and not of himself. If both in its practical activity and in science man is opposed to the world, as a subject to an object, and so limited in his freedom, then in art man transforms his subjective content into a universally valid and integral objective being.

This inner unity of all the spiritual forces of man in the creation and perception of works of art is provided by the syncretic power of aesthetic consciousness. If, by reading scientific, journalistic, popular publications, a person is immediately internally tuned to a sort of "fragmentary" thinking about the world, "forgetting everything", which is not useful for the perception of this text, then, tuning in to reading a work of art, it activates all its spiritual forces - mind, intuition, feelings, ethical concepts, and its most secret self. There is not a single moment in our inner spiritual life that could not be caused and activated by the perception of art. Therefore, the main function of art is its synthetic mission, providing a holistic, full-blooded and free perception and recreation of the world , which is possible only if the cognitive is combined with ethical, aesthetic and all other moments of the human spirit.

The synthetic force of art largely explains the fact that the philosophers surprised that among all the variety of types of spiritual activity there is nothing that would have an equal in their power social impact on man. This was known already in Antiquity. Art often even frightened people with its mysterious power. Thus, the opinion was expressed that any state striving for order should prohibit music (and other arts), because it softens morals and makes impossible a strict subordination. Orthodox Christianity in the first centuries of its ascent prohibited theater and painting as something that challenged the severe asceticism demanded by ethical Christian dogmas. Even in the New Times, when, as a result of the development of social life, the prohibition of art was no longer possible, the state continued to impose severe censorship bans on literature, demanding that it obediently chant official world views.

In the XIX and XX centuries. the problem of the relationship between art and ideology has come to the fore. Being vested with power, ideological systems that incorporate the political, moral and other attitudes of each given society often seek to suppress the freedom of art, to politicize it. Naturally, at the same time, the semantic aspect of art works is simplifiedly identified with a certain logically ordered system of political ideas, which leads to oblivion of the specifics of the actual artistic thinking, to the utilitarianization of aesthetic sense. As a result of ideological dictatorship, the so-called mass culture flourishes, in which the aesthetic indicators are so reduced that virtually all the difference between such averaged art (ie already pseudo-art) and the ideology itself disappears.

Vulgarization approaches to the ideological management of art were also manifested in our society, especially during the period of Stalin's cult of personality and the years of stagnation, when a significant part of the works of art was, in essence, merely a simple illustration of the schematically and simplified interpreted needs of the day. The dominance in the cinema of the 1970s, for example, the so-called production theme, submitted and wandering from one film to another in a banal scheme of struggle, say, a young innovator and first resisting, but then admitting his mistakes leader, negatively affected the general state of cinema. The best movies, in which the same public content received a high artistic form, "lay on shelves", were not allowed to the viewer or were unknowably changed as a result of using "scissors". The ideologization of art was accompanied by his bureaucratization, which opened the way for personal ambitions of those people who held command posts in the film industry. Using the ideological slogan about the allegedly antisocial or antipatriotic content of certain films, about their "withdrawal" from socialist realism, these people, who put on political and ideological blinders, for a long time detained the appearance on the screen of films of a number of talented directors, for example L. Tarkovsky, S. Paradjanov.

The demand for freedom of artistic creation from bureaucratic control and ideological diktat has nothing to do with the false thesis about the "extramoral nature of art", which is supported by some researchers in Western aesthetics - aesthetics and ethics can not be separated with impunity. Art, as Hegel said, is an aesthetically transformed "moral spirit". Democratization of art does not mean freedom from morality, but freedom from bureaucratic obstacles. Only in conditions of true liberal democracy can art really achieve not only aesthetic but also ethical heights, as happened, for example, in the film T. Abuladze "Repentance", in which, thanks to a high aesthetic form, the difficult years of our history were not experienced by us only through aesthetic, but also through moral catharsis.

The role of art in public life can not be overestimated. Any deep reorganization of social order has always been prepared with the active participation of art. So it was in Antiquity, and in the Renaissance. So it was in the early 1980s, when it was his creators who, as it were, gradually prepared a powerful explosion of social activity in our country. It is not by chance that art is faster than, say, science or law, reacted to a change in the barometer of public life in the mid-1980s, being on the leading edge of the main events of time.

Thus, artistic consciousness and its highest form - art - are a necessary part of public consciousness, ensuring its integrity and mobility, its search direction in the future, its moral and psychological stability in the present.

Art, creating universally valid ideas, images that grow to human characters, expresses the meaning of all historical development. Oedipus and Antigone, Hamlet and Don Quixote, Don Giovanni and Candide, Oblomov and Prince Myshkin, Master and Margarita are no longer just artistic images, they are symbols of culturally significant universal values. Art absorbs all the achievements of humanity, transforming and changing them in its own way.

Referring to art as to the way of its integral self-expression, a person has always seen in him a means to ensure the immortality of all his other achievements. Historically significant personalities and their deeds are sung in folklore, any socially significant event is reflected in painting or architecture, music or poetry. So, "The Word of Igor's Campaign" an unknown United States author of the late 12th century, the Leningrad Shostakovich Symphony written during the siege and the memorial complex in Volgograd are expressions of the historical memory of the people.

So, the synthesizing mission of art manifests itself at the level of an individual, consolidating all its spiritual forces, and at the level of each given stage of social development, ensuring the holistic self-expression of the people, and at the level of the historical connection of generations.

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