Philosophy of Technology
The philosophy of labor finds its direct and logical continuation in the philosophy of technology, and both of these problems are organically inscribed by mankind into practice, and, therefore, into theory, are included in the sphere of the economy in which labor and technology occupy a pivotal position-namely, on them the whole building of the economic life of society rises. Under the technique (from Greek techne - art, skill, skill) the created means and tools of production, as well as the techniques and operations, the skill and art of implementing the labor process. The technique arises when intermediate means are introduced to achieve the goal. Thus, technology as "productive organs of social man" is the result of human labor and the development of knowledge and at the same time their means.
The purpose and function of technology is to transform the nature and the world of man in accordance with the goals formulated by people on the basis of their needs and desires. Only rarely can people survive without their transformative activities. Consequently, technology is a necessary part of human existence throughout history.
Some technical means are consonant with inorganic nature, others are consonant with plant and sensory (or animal) life, others copy specifically human organs and organic functions.
Technology is not a goal in itself. It has value only as a means. Of course, one can regard technology as an independent phenomenon, but this independence is relative - the technique is organically inscribed in the context of social being and consciousness, forming the basis of civilization, it is in the stream of current historical time and is constantly progressing.
The technique itself is not good and not bad. Everything depends on what a person will do of it, what it serves, what conditions it puts in it, from what a man will subordinate to him, how he will show himself with her help. The technique does not depend on what can be achieved by it.
M. Heidegger, philosophically analyzing the technique, showed that historically the emergence and specialization of sciences oriented towards technology are largely due to the successes of technology, in particular instrument engineering. According to Heidegger, the technique does not simply construct the "technical world", it subordinates to its imperative almost the entire space of social life, influencing the comprehension of history, in particular its periodization. Now there is no doubt that the consequences of the invasion of technology are incredibly diverse, and in the long term even unpredictable. Technique is the most important means of discovering the deep properties of existence, for example in medicine, astronomy, biology.
Now there is a rapid development of technology, and at the same time, the philosophical studies of its phenomenon are expanding: "Philosophy of technology, understood as the philosophy of man, insists that rather the technique must be subordinated to the human imperative than man is subject to the imperative of technology. Philosophy of technology insists that a man should respect the delicate balance in nature and give permission only for such an instrumentalization of the world, which strengthens this balance by destroying one hundred. She insists that a person's knowledge should not be directed against the rest of creation, that knowledge should not be a force used for control and manipulation, but rather should serve to better understand the nature of things and harmonious inclusion in it. She insists that the human concept of progress must mean not the extinction of other creations of nature and at the same time the necrosis of the soul and sensual potencies of man, but rather an increase in the individuality of the person, which will be accomplished mainly through the expansion of his spirituality. The philosophy of technology asserts that society and civilization have taught us a serious lesson, which in the past we were inclined to treat lightly, but which is capable of preserving our health, unity and integrity through our conscious admission to the nature of things - a much more profound involvement than the pursuit of material progress. "
Man has always been associated with technology; it produces and uses or consumes its products. But at the same time, the person himself is a product of his technical activity.
The historical process of technology development includes three main stages - tools of manual labor, machines, automata. Technology in its development now, perhaps, begins to approach the human level, moving from the analogy with physical labor and its organization to analogies with the mental properties of man. So far we have reached the zoological stage of technology, which is really much developed.
The less material, physical or visual is the technical imitation of a person, the more difficult it is to master and control technology. Since everything that is done by a person comes from its humanity, technology is always a means for self-realization and self-knowledge. Technology in all historical moments expresses people and the idea of humanity of this time. This becomes clear in the analysis of modern technology, especially in such industries as microbiology and informatics. New discoveries and inventions in this area can lead to new knowledge about man and the human world.
One of the most important problems, which is the philosophy of technology, is the problem and concept of a person who creates and uses technology. The peculiarity of this problem now lies in the technological power that has grown to the limitlessness available to man. At the same time, the number of people affected by technical measures or their side effects has increased to an enormous extent. The people affected by these impacts are no longer in direct contact with those who produce these effects. Further, natural systems themselves become the subject of human activity. Man by his interference can constantly violate them and even destroy them. Undoubtedly, this is an absolutely new situation - never before has a man had such power to be able to destroy life in a partial ecological system and even on a global scale or decisively bring it to degeneration.
Therefore, the society should not do everything that it can produce without preliminary expertise, not do everything that it can do, at least immediately after the discovery of new technical capabilities.
Having created such an instrument of labor as a computer - a cybernetic system modeling various types of thinking activity, operating with complex types of information, a person produced his intellectual-information analogue, created a pseudo-subject. Of course, the computer system is primarily a tool of labor. A person actively influences him, comprehending, when interacting with him, his possibilities, changes, improves him - this is one side of the interaction, which can be conditionally called an object one. At the same time, a modern computer is no longer a simple tool. Although not in full and not in perfect form, it is a functional analogue of mental activity. Man, interacting with him, is experiencing his influence - this is another, relatively speaking, humanitarian side of interaction.
According to N. Wiener, the problem of joint functioning, mutual communication of man and machine is one of the key problems of cybernetics. The production of personal computers has reached tens of millions a year, and a large number of people around the world are involved in the sphere of interaction with computers. Therefore, the problem of human interaction with the computer from the problem of cybernetics, psychology and other special disciplines in the coming years can grow into a global, universal.
The interaction between man and machine is the interaction between thinking, feeling, endowed with will and consciousness being and inanimate, non-biological device by its nature. The person is guided by the motive, comprehends the object of activity, realizes the goal, develops the means for achieving it, takes into account in his activities the various features of this instrument of labor, on the basis of which one can achieve the necessary result. The machine, of course, is devoid of motivation to solve the problem, it does not have an interpersonal relationship to the partner partner and there is no need to build this kind of relationship to achieve the goal. The very goal is set by the machine from outside - by whom it is controlled. The machine is not available inaccurate language, vague statements. It requires a person to be able to operate with literal meanings, build their messages in strict accordance with the rules of formal logic.
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