Philosophy of the Ancient World
The cradle of European philosophical culture was the views of thinkers of ancient Greece. Today in literature ancient Greek philosophy, like many other manifestations of culture, is called antique (ancient Antiquus old).
The development of ancient philosophy is usually divided into three periods (Figure 2.3): a) early (from VII to V century BC); b) classic (from V to IV century BC); c) Hellenistic (from IV century BC to VI century AD). Sometimes in the literature there are four periods. This approach is justified by the mutual influence of Greek and Roman philosophies, in many ways by their joint development. The fourth period (from the second century BC to the 5th century AD) is called Greco-Roman. With this approach, the Hellenistic period ends with the conquest of Greece by Rome in the second century. BC
Fig. 2.3. Philosophy of the Ancient World
It should be noted that the division of the process of development of philosophy into periods is conditional, but necessary. The fact is that each of the periods has its own distinctive features, which will be briefly considered.
Note that the important source of Greek philosophy was the Greek mythology Other foundations of this philosophy were dynamism and constructiveness development of Greek culture, which absorbed many features and achievements of scientific knowledge of the peoples of India, China, Mesopotamia, Egypt and other countries. The Greeks were excellent navigators, traders, soldiers. They not only established the most diverse relations with their neighbors, but also used their achievements and discoveries in the life and work of their city policies. The growth of the total volume and diversity of information and experience, as well as the development of all spheres of life of Greek polices, conditioned the emergence and development of their own philosophical views.
The first philosophical views in ancient Greece began to appear in the VII-VI centuries. BC. This time is considered the starting point of the history of European philosophy.
The early (or pre-Socratic ) period of the development of ancient philosophy is characterized by the search for a response to the question of primordial principles , about the substantial basis of the universe. The answer to it was different in different schools.
So, for Milesian school , an attempt was made to solve the question of the correlation of a single matter and specific phenomena of nature, about how from the air, fire, , which are the initial components of the environment of human existence. Nature was seen as a matter eternally in motion and development; she was credited with universal spirituality.
This school got its name from the city of Miletus, which in the VI. BC. Together with other cities of the Ionian coast of the Mediterranean Sea, it was the center of commerce, crafts, navigation and culture, and was founded by one of the glorified sages of Ancient Greece - Thales (circa 640/625 - circa 547/545 BC) the first European philosopher.
The fundamental principle of the world Thales believed water , which in his understanding was divine and reasonable and from which everything arose, including a flat Earth resting on the water. The philosopher believed that there are many gods in the world, so do not create them.
Anaximander (610-540 BC), a disciple of Thales, found it impossible to choose the origin from, perhaps, equal elements among themselves. In this regard, as the primary basis, he proposed apeiron - an indefinite, infinite, eternal material principle, from which, in turn, four well-known elements are formed. The heaviest of them is the earth, floating in the air in the center of the world. There is water on it, and then air. The fire formed the Sun, the moon and the stars. It is interesting that even then Anaximander formulated in an embryonic form the idea of the law of conservation of matter and the origin of man as a result of the evolution of animals.
Anaximenes (585-525 BC), the disciple of Anaximander, developed a strictly monistic concept, according to which the basis of everything in the world is air. All the rest in the world comes from the transformation of air: fire, ether, water, earth and stones. Gods and souls are also formed from the air. Consequently, the souls are material.
Heraclitus from Ephesus (circa 520-460 BC) is one of the Ionian philosophers who stood at the origins of materialism and dialectics. The first principle of the world, Heraclitus considered fire , attributing to him the properties of a material, living, intelligent substance. Thanks to the changes in fire, matter is transformed into water, earth. The world is a living fire. As a dialectician philosopher believed that everything flows, obeying the laws of a single wise man. That's why "in the same river you will not enter twice."
Heraclitus is the first Greek philosopher who went beyond purely natural philosophical constructions and put forward the idea that
that the world consists of opposites, which are in constant struggle. This is the source of material and social development, which in the understanding of the thinker was cyclical. Appearance and disappearance, life and death, birth and death, being and non-existence are interrelated.
The Pythagorean School , named after the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras (circa 570-500 BC) from the island of Samos, made a valuable contribution not only to the development of mathematics and astronomy, but also in philosophical cosmology, which Aristotle interpreted as an ontology. The representatives of this school had a purely ontological understanding of numbers that occupied the intermediate sphere of being between ideas and sensible things. Having absolutized the concept of quantity and tearing it away from material things, the Pythagoreans came to idealism, taking quantitative relations for the essence of things.
Eleaic Ancient Greek School VI-V centuries. BC. originated in the city of Eleja in Southern Italy. The most famous of its representatives were Xenophanes from Colophon (VI-V centuries BC), Parmenides from Elea (end of VI - beginning of the 5th century BC), Zeno from Elea (about 490-430 BC). .e.) and Melis from the island of Samos (V century BC).
Beginning with Parmenides, the school acquires a distinctly expressed idealistic character. Eleatians first put forward the idea of the illusory sensory world. The true, in their opinion, should be considered an intelligible, not a corporeal world. The thinkers of this school believed that not people were created by gods, but gods by people. People by the rational way, by the power of reason, by inference, proceeding from the identity of the conceived and existing, will know the truth.At the same time, the Eleatic school demonstrated a dead end, in which philosophical thought gets out of control of experienced knowledge. So, formulated by Zeno strong> (embarrassment) served as a reason for understanding the possibilities of rational cognition. For example, in the apology, "Achilles and Turtle it is argued that Achilles will never catch up with the tortoise. Encouraging his opponents to be guided by the "setting" that space is divisible to infinity, Zeno argues that Achilles will endlessly approach the tortoise, and she will be infinitely removed from him. The logic of Zeno's reasoning is simple enough: Achilles, in order to catch up with the turtle, it is necessary to gradually overcome part of the distance that separates him from the animal. However, the turtle, while it will overcome part of the distance, at the same time will move to another point. While Achilles reaches a new goal, the turtle again move to another point, and so on ad infinitum, although the distance with each time is significantly reduced.
Already at the first stage of the development of philosophy, the thinkers of Ancient Greece had rudiments of materialism, idealism, dialectics, and metaphysics. It is believed that philosophical materialism was first demonstrated in atomistic teachings. One of the authors of atomism Democritus (circa 460-370 BC) from the city of Abdera borrowed the provisions of his atomistic doctrine from Leucippus, his friend and teacher.
Atomists believed that atoms , representing indivisible, uncreated and indestructible, the smallest, but different by form, mass and size of mobile particles, are the fundamental principle of being. In their infinite set and motion, they periodically connect and form the objects of the observed material world. Then, with time, they break up and form in a different ratio other objects. In gaps between atoms there is an infinite emptiness. True, some thinkers believed that the first principle may be different. Thus, Anaxagoras (ca. 500-428 BC) believed that there is an infinite qualitative variety of primary elements of matter, the "seed of things". From the various combinations of these elements all existing things are formed. The driving force that determines the connection and separation of elementary particles, he considered the - mind, which is the lightest and thinnest substance. It is impossible not to mention Empedocles (about 490-430 BC) from Ligrigent, who reduced the whole variety of things to four "roots": earth, water, air and fire. The connection and separation of elements Empedocles explained by the action of two opposing forces: friendship and enmity. He also expressed a conjecture about the evolution of living beings as a result of natural selection.
The concept of Democritus, which was developed by Epicurus (341-270 BC) and Titus Lucretius Carom (about 99-55 BC), was the most widely recognized among the thinkers of the materialistic direction.
The movement of atoms, as Epicurus believed, is due to their intrinsic property-gravity. At the same time, self-deviation is the minimum of freedom in nature, without which an explanation of the freedom of people is inconceivable. However, only the reasonable use of freedom is able to provide a person with the opportunity to achieve physical health in conjunction with an elevated calm state of mind.
Lucretius claimed that in the world there is nothing but an eternally existing matter, consisting of small, indivisible particles - atoms. The universe is the countless worlds that eternally arise and perish. Matter and emptiness constitute a unity, without which movement is impossible. As for cognition, Lucretius stood in the position of cognition of the objective world. The source of knowledge is the sensory perception of the objects of the real world, and the source of the development of society is the mind.In general, the philosophers and philosophical parties of the materialistic direction have made a fairly successful attempt to substantiate the principle of cosmocentrism , and also promoted the spread of science and progressive culture not only in Greece, but also in others countries.
The next, classic period of ancient philosophy is distinguished by great maturity, the depth of understanding the essence of nature, the creation of a system of philosophical education and at the same time the formation of philosophical idealism.
Significant philosophical group of this period was formed paid instructors of eloquence and all kinds of knowledge, which were in demand by the social practice of citizen participation in the life of the state. This group was named sophists (from sophistes
wise). Common in their views were social and ethical relativism, rationalism and a willingness to prepare anyone who addressed them to convincingly defend any viewpoint that might be needed in matters.
The main group of Sophists, senior sophists, represented the first ancient Enlightenment Encyclopaedists Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias, Prodicus, Antiphont, Critias. To the next generation of so-called younger Sophists include Lykofrona, Alcidamanta, Trasimachus. The views of the Sophists did not differ in unity even on basic philosophical questions, although they placed the focus of their attention on knowledge issues.
Thus, Protagoras, speaking of the general fluidity of things, is considered the only reliable source of knowledge of sensation. At the same time, he declared the man a "measure of all things". Protagoras marked the beginning of verbal contests in which many sophists resorted to logical overexposures and paradoxes, which had already been called sophisms (from sophisma - tricky trick, fabrication).
Gorgias and other Sophists developed the teaching of oratory, taking certain steps to create a science of language. As for Critia, he gravitated toward idealism. Antiphon and Lycophron rejected the advantages of noble origin and believed that the law is the guarantor of personal rights of citizens. Trasimachi argued that rulers always impose favorable laws for citizens.
Some researchers refer to the Sophists and Socrates (469-399 BC). However, for him, the epistemological and ethical relativism of the Sophists was unacceptable, with which, judging by the writings of his followers Plato and Xenophon, he entered into disputes and "won" their. Socrates was not entirely supportive of the natural philosophical search of the philosophers of the previous era, considering only human problems worthy of attention: questions of virtue, good, justice. Perhaps, therefore, he substantiated and asserted the idea that power in the state should belong to the "best", i.e. moral, fair and experienced in the management of citizens. He himself demonstrated a sample of this citizen both in peacetime, and during wars, lived modestly and did not tear to fame or wealth.
Interesting is the concept of Socrates virtue, based on the following types of knowledge : a) bravery - overcoming one's fear; b) fairness - knowledge of how to enforce laws; c) vice , evil - lack of knowledge.
For people to acquire knowledge, the philosopher suggested using such a method of detecting "truth" as a dialogue. Asking the interlocutor the question behind the question, Socrates led him to recognize his own ignorance (irony), and then to know virtue. In other words, using these techniques, he helped formulate the idea ( mayevtika ). The concept under discussion was determined by connections of a number of particular facts, i.e. by induction. Thus, the goal of a real dialogue was to force an opponent to admit his delusions, establish common definitions.
It should be noted that the dialogue as Socrates' method of revealing the truth can be directly used in the activity of a lawyer.
At that time, Socrates's views were used by four philosophical schools. In the formation of the first of them - the school of Cynics - first contributed to Antisthenes, but finally it was formed due to the activities of Diogenes Sinopsky. The main representatives of this school were Kratet, Mensdem, the author of the satire Menippus. The second, Cyrene School , founded by Aristippus of Cyrene, included Aretha, Gegesiy, Annerikid, Theodore. Representatives of the third, Megarian school , founded by Euclid from Megara, were Eubulid, Stilpon, Diodorus Cron. The name of the fourth, Elite-Eretric school , founded by Fedon of Elis, named one of the dialogues of Plato.
Philosophical views of Plato (427-347 BC) were formed under the influence of Kratil and Socrates, the latter having a decisive influence on him. It was expressed in the fact that most of his works Plato wrote in the form of dialogues. In 387 BC. he founded his own school in Athens - academy.Plato's exceptional place in the history of philosophy is determined by the fact that he combined both the philosopher and the sage, since he considered all problems both on the basis of philosophical approaches and on the basis of their immediate vital importance.
Plato is the founder of objective idealism. According to his views, only the world of ideas is a true being. Concrete things are something between being and non-being. They are the shadows of ideas. Having abstracted ideas from the minds of concrete people, the Plata declared the world of ideas to be a divine kingdom, in which, before the birth of the child, his immortal soul abides. Only after hitting a sinful land, a person recalls about the world of ideas. At the same time, Platon interpreted knowledge as a memory of the soul of his pre-earth existence. The philosopher believed that feelings deceive a person. Therefore, in order to know the truth, it is necessary to trust the soul that recalls its divine past.
It is interesting that Plato's objective idealism combines with the dialectical method of philosophical reasoning: the dialectic of one and many, identical and other, movement and rest. It is important to note that the dialectic of Plato's notions, despite its idealistic character, was of great importance for the development of philosophy. True, in his philosophy of nature, the thinker associated it with numerical symbols, treating the latter as the ruler of sensory data. The material world Plato is considered a volatile and fickle, not having substantiality. He believed that matter is dead, formless, passive. According to the philosopher, material things are only imperfect reflections of eidos - ideas , for example ideas of a house, city, horse, tree, etc.
In the field of socio-political issues, Plato sought to comprehend the laws and regulations of social life. In his doctrine of the "ideal state" he substantiated the idea that the social system should be based on the existence of three classes: philosophers-rulers; guards; farmers and artisans. At the same time, the latter own property, have families, and the first and second property does not, even their wives and children have common. Decent life and high quality of training and provision of higher layers are provided by taxes from artisans and farmers. Each class is a professional in their field, proven valiant, conscientious citizens of the state.
Plato's life and activities, his ideas have influenced both the formation of new philosophical views, and the emergence of new thinkers-philosophers. The most outstanding representative of the philosophical thought of the time was Aristotle (384-322 BC), who was born in the city of Stagir, in connection with which he is sometimes called Stagirite. Aristotle was a listener, and then a teacher at the Academy of Plato. From 334 to 323 BC. Aristotle has already taught in Athens, in his philosophical school Lika, or Peripatos. Hence the name - peripateticheskaya ; school, from the word peripatos - roof, gallery. The school really represented the gallery, which served as a lecture hall.
Aristotle in his philosophical views ranged between idealism and materialism, although his philosophical views began to develop as opposed to idealism of Plato. In his first philosophy, also called "metaphysics", Aristotle subjected Plato's teaching to sharp criticism. He believed that every object, every single thing consists of two principles: matter and form. Matter, as Aristotle argued, is eternal, uncreated and indestructible. Matter is an opportunity, the ability of a thing; The ideal form is its reality. The opportunity passes into reality through movement: the form materializes, matter is formed. At the same time, Aristotle believed that there is one pure, that is, The form, which is detached from matter, is the form of all forms. By the latter the philosopher meant thought, the mind, which "thinks itself", i.e. God. God plays the role of the stationary engine of the world, which is one and eternal.
In epistemology Aristotle came close to materialism, defending, in contrast to Plato, the origin of knowledge from the senses. The thinker noted that the study of the world consists in the discovery of forms, but to achieve this it is necessary to go not from the forms themselves, but from the reality given to us. The philosopher argued that single things are changeable, and their individual forms are unchanged. As you can see, in this generalization, it's & quot ; joined dialectics and metaphysics.
Aristotle was one of the first to develop a detailed classification of forms and methods of rational thinking, becoming the founder of formal logic. In his logic he sought not to separate, but to connect the forms of thinking with being, explain logical categories in accordance with objective reality.
The ethic of Aristotle reflects a typical view of the Greek thinker on the relationship between practice and theory. Not denying the beauty and greatness of the valor of political, military and other ethical virtues conditioned by the propensities to appropriate actions, Aristotle above all set the contemplative activity of the mind, which also contains in itself one characteristic pleasure, which enhances energy. Hence the moral ideal - is thinking thinking. Ethical virtue is the middle between two extremes. For example, generosity is the midpoint between stinginess and extravagance.
Ethical ideals, Aristotle defined his principles in pedagogy and aesthetics. He believed that education should be guided on the formation of a personality capable of enjoying intellectual leisure. It is this task and must determine the boundaries of artistic learning and the development of art.
Aristotle's contribution to the formation of aesthetics was that the philosopher formulated a deep, approaching realism concept of art , the doctrine of artistic activity, the genres of the epic, drama, etc.
Aristotle's account in Policy the doctrine of society and types of state power reflected the crisis state of the Athenian slave state and the beginning of the decline of the slave-owning classes. In the eyes of Aristotle, the best of all was the class of landowners, since he was unable to interfere in the governance of the state, which should constitute the privilege of the moderately prosperous classes of society.
As for the forms of state power, Aristotle distinguished three good and three bad forms of government. He considered good forms in which the possibility of self-serving use of power was excluded, and the authority itself served the whole of society: monarchy , aristocracy and watered as the power of the middle class. On the contrary, the philosopher referred to tyranny , pure oligarchy and democracy.
The teachings of Aristotle - one of the greatest achievements in the development of philosophical thought. The duality of his views also determined the dualism of their influence on the subsequent development of philosophy in the world. In general, Aristotle's achievements in philosophy determined the development of the latter in both Europe and the East. The views of the thinker in many fields of knowledge influenced the world outlook of whole generations. His teaching became a vivid end to the classical period of ancient Greek philosophy.
Summarizing the above, one can say that the philosophy of the classical period is characterized by a deeper approach to philosophical problems. For the first time, the subject of philosophical analysis was directly human activity, the essence of man himself, the state and society. Further development of the idea of the classical philosophy of Ancient Greece was in the Hellenistic era.
Hellenistic period of ancient philosophy came after the collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great, stretching from Greece to India. The basis for progressive changes in the Hellenistic era was the mutual enrichment of the ancient Greek and ancient Oriental civilizations as a result of their direct interaction. In this general system of relationships, the main role was played by four great powers of the Hellenistic
of the world: Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid state, Pergamon and Macedonia, to which many other states gravitated.In the Hellenistic era, on the one hand, exact sciences developed rapidly, and on the other, the creation of such complex philosophical "parties" as skeptics , < strong> Cynics , Stoics , Neoplatonists , Epicureans. Urban building, architecture, literature, poetry blossomed. The capitals of the Hellenistic states - Alexandria of Egypt, Antioch on Orontes, Pergamos, Rhodes, Syracuse, Athens - became major cultural and scientific centers with huge libraries and scientific schools for that time. They were powerful generators of scientific ideas and new directions of cultural life, distributed throughout the oecumene of that time.
Skepticism (Greek skeptikos - consider) - a philosophical direction that expresses doubt in the possibility of reliable knowledge of objective truth. The doubt of the skeptic was raised to the principle that read: "Since there are two possible mutually exclusive opinions in regard to any subject - affirmation and denial, then our knowledge of these subjects can not be authentic."
The founder of skepticism is Pirron (circa 360-270 BC), according to which the belief in the impossibility of knowing things should in practice provide an indifferent, impassive attitude to subjects - "serenity of the soul". He and his followers rejected the existence of the cause of phenomena, rejected the movement and the emergence of a new, denied the objective existence of good and evil. For example, Sextus Empiricus (2nd half of the 2nd century - early 3rd century) believed that "the beginning and the end of skepticism lie in the hope of equanimity," which is achieved by abstaining from judgments. Other philosophers were considered stupid by skeptics. In the Renaissance, skepticism was filled with a different content and played a significant role in the struggle against medieval ideology. In the XVIII century. this trend manifested itself in the form of agnosticism, who spoke with the negation of the objective meaning of the most important philosophical categories: substance, causality. To the skeptics it is possible to include I. Kant with his thesis about the unknowability of the "things in themselves."
Cynics (Greek kynikos - hill and gymnasiums in Athens, where Antisthenes dealt with students) - Ancient Greek ethic-philosophical school, focused on working off and experimental verification on myself a certain way of life.
The school was founded by the pupil of Gorgias and Socrates Antisthenes (circa 450 360 BC), and the most famous cynic was Diogenes from Sinop (ca. 404-323 BC).
The Cynics recognized the basis of happiness and virtue as maximum independence from external conditions of life, disregard for social norms and conventions, restriction of needs and a return to the "natural state". They formulated the concept of "cosmopolitan", as they called themselves citizens of the world. Lived Cynics extremely simple, dispensed with the most necessary, despised material comforts, especially wealth, were very unpretentious. Modern society of the Cynics considered them to be deceitful, and people - not independent and too attached to unreal values.
The philosophy of the Cynics served as the direct source of Stoicism , softening the kinetic paradoxes, which brought a much more constructive attitude to political life, intellectual culture and retained the preponderance of ethics over other philosophical disciplines.
Stoicism (from the Greek stoa - portico) is an extremely heterogeneous and contradictory philosophical doctrine that includes logic, physics, ethics. It arose around the 3rd century. BC. and lasted until the VI century. AD It was founded by Zeno from Kition (about 333-262 BC).
The history of Stoicism is divided into three periods: ancient standing (III-II centuries BC .), the most outstanding representatives of which were Zeno, Cleanthes, Hrensippus; average standing (II-I centuries BC) - Pantetius, Posidonius; new standing (1st-VIth centuries AD) - Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius.
In their logic, the Stoics developed a sensationalistic concept of cognition and asserted that all knowledge is acquired through sensory perception. The soul before the experience is a clean board. Representations are the impressions of objects in the soul. Sensuous ideas are then subjected to further processing by thinking. So common concepts, judgments are formed. All cognitive processes, according to the teachings of the Stoics, occur in the soul, which is a special kind of body - to the ground, ie. connection of air and fire.
In the field of physics, the Stoics basically acted as materialists, developing the teachings of Heraclitus. They regarded nature as a material and at the same time a living and intelligent whole, all parts of which are in motion. At the same time, the Stoics regarded matter as a passive beginning, and God as active. Everything in the world is subject to strict necessity, destiny, fate. Thus, representatives of this doctrine preached a fatalism of being.
In the context of this approach, the Stoics justified their ethics, in which virtue was primarily considered, and not pleasure. However, the main feature of such ethics was preaching obedience to fate, dispassion, rejection of the joys of life. The Stoics opposed the changing world of things to the stability of the mind. From the ethics of the Stoics, many borrowed a nascent Christianity with its cult of human obedience to fate.The opposite of the idealistic views that existed at that time was the doctrine of Epicurus (341-270 BC), later called epicureanism.
Epicurus was an outstanding materialist and atheist of the Hellenistic era, an enlightener of antiquity. In his philosophical views, he proceeded from the recognition of the eternity of matter, which has an internal source of motion that exists outside the consciousness of man.
Reviving the atomism of Leucippus-Democritus, Epicurus introduced original changes into it, expressed brilliant guesses confirmed in the further development of science. He believed that everything that exists is the result of the movement and collision of atoms. To explain the possibility of collision of atoms moving in space, Epicurus introduced the concept of "spontaneous deviation", which implies the existence of randomness in the world.
In epistemology Epicurus appeared as a materialist-sensationalist. The basis of knowledge, he recognized the sensations, which in themselves are always true.
Errors arise when interpreting sensations. Affirming the materiality and mortality of the soul, Epicurus opposed the ignorance and superstition that engender fear of gods and death.
The goal of philosophy, according to Epicurus, is the happiness of a person, for the achievement of which one must be freed from prejudice, master the knowledge of the laws of nature, for, for a reasonable pleasure, a person needs an individualistic ideal of avoiding suffering and achieving a calm and joyful state of mind.
One of the most famous Epicureans, Titus Lucretius Car (99-55 BC), saw the source of man's misfortunes in inflated and empty aspirations to power, glory, wealth. It is they who force people to go beyond the limits of rational being.
The mystical component of the philosophy of the era of the decline of the Roman Empire (III-VI centuries) is Neoplatonism , originally originated in Alexandria. In 244, Plotinus (204-270) founded the Neoplaton school in Rome. In the V century. in Syria Iamblich school appeared. The last Neoplatononic school was organized by Prokl (410-485) in Athens.
The idealistic teaching of Plato about the real world as a shadow of the supersensible world of ideas took in Neoplatonism the form of the mystical emanation of the material world from the spiritual beginning. Matter for Neoplatonism is only the lowest link in the hierarchy of the Universe, the expiration of a certain deity, the "world-soul". The highest degree of philosophy is achieved, according to the Neoplatonists, not through experience and reason, but by mystical ecstasy. As a result, idealism in Neoplatonism degenerated into Theosophy. Neoplatonism played a decisive role in Christian patristics and had a huge impact on development religious views in Muslim countries.
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