Philosophy of the Enlightenment, Voltaire. Philosophical...

Philosophy of the Enlightenment

Voltaire. Philosophical views

VOLTER Marie Francois Arue (1694-1778) - French writer and philosopher-educator, deist. Appeal of Voltaire: "Crush the fool!", First sounded in a letter to d'Alembert in October 1760, was directed against the all-powerful Catholic Church. However, no less famous is his other winged phrase relating to 1769: "If God did not exist, he should have invented". Voltaire published more than ten philosophical stories , such as Macromegas (1752), Candide, or Optimism (1759), the Simple-minded (1767), tragedies in the style of classicism "Brutus" (1731), Tankred (published in 1761), satirical poems "Orléans virgin" (1735, published in 1755), the Metaphysical Treatise (1734), Philosophical Letters (1733), Philosophical Dictionary (1764-1769).

1. "I was the first to venture out for my people in a clear language of Newton's discovery. Carthusian prejudices, which replaced in France the prejudices of peripatetics, were then very strong ... "

2. A lot of thinkers created a novel about the soul - a sage appeared who modestly wrote the history of the soul. Locke unfolded the human mind in front of people like an excellent anatomist, which explains the springs of the human body. He everywhere resorts to the help of a physics fixture, sometimes he dares to speak in the affirmative, but he has the courage and doubt. Instead of immediately determining what we do not know, he gradually learns what we want to know. He takes the child at the time of his birth and, step by step, follows the successes of his mind: he sees what he has in common with animals and in what he surpasses them; especially he relies on his own testimony, on the awareness of his thinking process. "

5. "Undoubtedly, our first ideas are sensations. Gradually we acquire ideas composed of what irritates our bodies; memory keeps these feelings. Then we distribute them according to common ideas. From this natural ability that we possess - to form and order our ideas - all the vast knowledge of man follows. "

Since nature is understood as matter, the object of metaphysics is everything that is not material. For example, your mind, which is neither long nor broad, nor high, nor dense, nor sharp; Your soul, unknown to you and the cause of your mind; Spirits, of which they constantly spoke, who for a long time were ascribed such a subtle body that it was no longer a body, and in which, at last, they removed all the likeness of the body, not knowing what remains after that; The way of feeling these spirits, not constrained by the five senses, the way they think in the absence of the head, the way they convey their thoughts without the aid of words and signs; Finally, God, whom we know through His creations, but which our pride wants to define; God, whose power we feel unlimited; God, between which and us lies the abyss of infinity and the nature of which we are trying to comprehend; Here are the objects of metaphysics

10. Everything is in motion, everything acts and reacts in nature. ... Everything is action, death itself acts. Corpses decompose, turn into plants, feeding animals, which in turn serve as food for other animals. What is the principle of this universal action?

11. Our planet has undoubtedly experienced transformations, and its form has changed. Each planet undergoes changes. Since everything is in motion, everything must be changed. Only immobility is unshakable, only nature is eternal, but we have appeared recently. We will discover thousands of signs that speak about changes on our globe. These testimonies tell us that thousands of cities were buried, that the rivers disappeared, that on a vast expanse of land we walk around the wreckage. "

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