PHILOSOPHY OF THE MIDDLE AGES, Blessed Augustine, On Being - Philosophy


The Middle Ages occupy a long section of history from the dissolution of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance - almost a millennium. Early Middle Ages (the end of V - the middle of XI centuries) in Europe is characterized by the emergence of Christianity in the conditions of the formation of European states as a result of the fall of the Roman Empire (5th century), and the Middle Ages (beginning in the 11th century) is associated with the formation and establishment of feudalism, which as the basis of his world outlook he used developed Christianity. For a long time in the history of philosophy, the notion that according to which between Antiquity and the New Times lies the band of complete stagnation of philosophical thought and, in general, of some kind of darkness prevailed. This largely explains the fact that not only the philosophical thought of the Middle Ages but also of the Renaissance has long remained beyond the serious and objective attention of researchers. And yet this is the richest period of the history of spiritual culture, full of deep searches and discoveries in the field of philosophy.

The religious orientation of the philosophical systems of the Middle Ages was dictated by the basic tenets of Christianity, among which the most important were such as the dogma of the personal form of the one God. The development of this dogma is associated primarily with the name of Augustine.

Blessed Augustine

Augustine Aurelius (354 430) is an outstanding, one might even say, brilliant thinker who inscribed the final pages in the history of the spiritual culture of Rome and all antiquity with his numerous works and laid a powerful foundation for the religious and philosophical thought of the Middle Ages. He was the inspiration for numerous and diverse ideas and trends in the field of not only theology and general philosophy, but also scientific methodology, ethical, aesthetic and historiosophical views.

About Being

Augustine's teachings on being close to Neoplatonism. According to Augustine, everything that exists, because it exists, and precisely because it exists, is good. Evil is not a substance, but a defect, a deterioration of a substance, a vice and a damage to form, nothingness. On the contrary, good is substance, form with all its elements: view, measure, number, order. God is the source of being, pure form, the highest beauty, the source of good. Maintaining the being of the world is the constant creation of his God again. If the creative power of God had ceased, the world would at once return to non-existence. The world is one, the recognition of many successive miron is an empty imagination game. In the world order, every thing has its place. Matter also has its place in the whole system.

Augustine considered as worthy of knowledge such objects as God and the soul: the existence of God is possible to derive from the self-consciousness of man, i.e. by way of comprehension, and the being of things from the generalization of experience. He analyzed the idea of ​​God in relation to man, and man - in relation to God. He carried out the most subtle analysis of man's life path - he developed a philosophical anthropology. The soul, according to Augustine, is an immaterial substance different from the body, and not merely a property of the body. She is immortal. In the doctrine of the origin of human souls, Augustine hesitated between the idea of ​​transmitting souls by parents together with the body and the idea of ​​creationism - the creation of the souls of the newborn by God.

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