PICTURE OF THE WORLD AND WORLD VIEW
As a result of studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• The meaning of philosophical concepts world picture and worldview & quot ;;
• types of worldviews;
• the ratio of the picture of the world and the outlook;
be able to
• Comprehend and formulate personal outlooks, taking into account the specifics of future professional activities;
• Apply the acquired knowledge to the formulation and analysis of philosophical, methodological problems of legal theory and practice;
• independently study and analyze philosophical literature for the purpose of self-development and improvement of professional culture;
• Definition of the worldview role of achievements and discoveries in the field of jurisprudence for resolving social contradictions, preventing offenses and resolving them if they arise;
• ideological justification of professional research programs in the field of legal science;
• Work with documents and other sources that allow you to obtain true or reliable knowledge and reveal the origin, development of various world paintings.
Of all forms of knowledge, philosophy is the most universal, profound and versatile spiritual and information system. Philosophical knowledge provides a maximum of conditions for the formation of the most capacious in content and diverse in form systems of holistic reflection of the real world. It allows us to reveal and formulate the content of the picture of the world, the outlook, the patterns of development of inanimate and living nature. Philosophical knowledge, mastered by man, equips him with a vision of common problems of life, gives an understanding of his place in this world, as well as the means and ways to cognize the latter and transform it in the interests of social progress and its harmonious development.
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In this chapter, the content of the world outlook, its types, as well as the general laws of the development of nature, society and human thinking will be revealed.
Types of worldviews and pictures of the world
A world view is a complex phenomenon, the result of human practice, of human cognition and consciousness, which encompasses the processes of world outlook, world perception and world perception.
The world view includes the following components: a) a person's vision of the world around him; 6) assessment of qualitative and quantitative parameters of nature; c) awareness of your place in the world; d) the attitude of the person, including practical, to the surrounding reality in all its diversity.
Worldview is associated with an orderly, purposeful reflection in the mind of a person of the variety of phenomena, processes and relations of existence that he has mastered (to one degree or another). Finally, the worldview plays a crucial role in human activities, in its practical interactions with the fragments of the world that are accessible to it at the moment. In a word, comprehension of the world outlook involves disclosing its content and typology (Figure 4.1).
Since the discovery in the world around him, a person had to comprehend what a real world is, to position itself in it. In the content plan for this it was necessary to seek answers to questions about the nature of the surrounding world, the nature of man himself, the relationship of man to the surrounding reality, about what separates and unites them, and how to behave in this world. The actual practice of human existence determined the development of his world outlook , world outlook, world perception, world outlook. man began to notice in the surrounding phenomena and processes, regular connections, interactions. Some of them were perceived by people as results of internal activity, someone's relatively hidden, but purposeful activity. The conclusion was that man not only learns and assimilates the world, but he himself is the object of research, observation and influence.
In the center of attention of people were included many compatriots who achieved successes in different spheres of life of the formed communities. Remaining in human memory and in the representation of the next generation, they acquired the status of "heroes" endowed with superhuman abilities. They attributed incredible feats. In the memories and stories about them, real affairs, imagery, and fiction interwoven, which often acquired fantastic forms.
So there were myths, differing in different cultural and ethnic communities in content, the totality of mythological creatures.
Myth in its modern definition is a form of integral mass experience and interpretation of reality with the help of sensual images that are considered independent phenomena of reality.
Fig. 4.1. World view and its types
Myths can be considered the basis of mythology and the first type of world outlook , the "rudiment" world outlook, because they had a relatively harmonious system of views on the world, an idea of the world, as well as the relationship of man to the world. Myth is distinguished by the simplicity of the plot, according to which a person interacts with humanized nature and fantastic beings. Everything that was stated in the myths could not be criticized, taken for facts of reality, was a model of the worldview and behavior. Mythological cognition and consciousness were characterized by the acceptance to practical guidance of images that were not observed in reality, pictures created by the imagination of man and acting as "irrefutable facts of being". Such a consciousness erased the boundary between the natural and the supernatural, the objective and the subjective, replaced the cause-effect relations with plausible analogies and superficial explanations.
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Mythology (from Greek mutos - legend, legend and logos - word, story) - type worldview, characterized by a sensual-imaginative uncritical perception of individual and mass consciousness of myths, the content of which is accepted as sacred, and the norms formulated in them - as requiring rigorous execution.
In the course of the development of the mythological worldview and mythology as a system of myths in the human mind, conviction in the reality and power of supernatural forces, whose will is determined by the processes of reality and the life of man himself, is growing stronger. The element of worship of these forces arose and began to be singled out in separate normative-value regulatory systems.
Initially, totems were the objects of worship, which were, as a rule, animals or plants, considered patrons of a particular group of people or clan. There also existed fetishes , which were inanimate objects endowed with beliefs in them with supernatural, sacred properties, which, however, devalued at some point in the development of human practice and knowledge. Their place was taken by supernatural, immaterial, omnipotent "essences", which, as a rule, were not directly related to nature, for they themselves were its creators. " Between these creatures a certain hierarchy arose. People sincerely believed in their ability to control the components of nature, both real and imaginary, for example, the underground kingdom. Various supernatural entities could "manage" one or another sphere of human activity or extend their patronage to large areas where people lived. Thus, the whole world around was divided between a set of deities , which, depending on their status, had more or less supernatural powers. It was polytheism.
Began to arise representations of the only powerful God, who is able to single-handedly determine absolutely everything that happens in nature and society. People completely trusted and worshiped Him. Thus, monotheism was asserted and another type of world perception was formed, a world view - religious. In this worldview, as in the mythological , the sensory aspect in relations to reality prevailed over the rational. However, the main difference between the religious worldview was the boundless faith in the supernatural ideal beginning - God, in his omnipotence and omnipresence. Religion presupposes the domination of a person's sense of dependence on God and unconditional worship of God.
Among the early monotheistic religions, the most well-known are Judaism, Hinduism , Buddhism , formed before our era. At the beginning of the first millennium, Christianity was formed, and then Islam.
Religious outlook (Latin religio - piety, piety, sacredness) is a system of views that is characterized by hard dogmatism, a well-developed set of moral canonical precepts,>
determined by the belief in the existence of the supernatural essence of the Divine, which determines the existence of the surrounding world and human life.
The range of problems solved by a religious outlook is not significantly different from the problems solved by the mythological worldview. However, the nature of their decision within the framework of religion is more strict and unambiguous. Religious systems, first of all world religions, are more organically more mythological and more perfect in the structural plan. They more strictly and in detail regulate a person's life. In addition to ontological, ideological, educational functions inherent in mythology, religions realize appraisal, consolidation, consolation and some other functions.
At the same time, in dealing with fundamental worldview questions about the world, society, cognition, man already in antiquity relied not only on mythological traditions, religious values and norms, but irrational knowledge. This was due to the improvement of production, the creation of diverse material and spiritual values. The development of rational knowledge was facilitated by the emergence of all kinds of specialized activities: livestock, agriculture, medicine, construction of large engineering structures.
An important role was played by the development of arts and crafts, as well as social expansion realized in economic, political, cultural and information relations with neighboring and "distant" countries and took various forms: from travel and trade expeditions to wars. Long sea and land campaigns, military confrontation required the organization of production of various technical devices, vehicles, construction of communications, etc. In solving these problems, many questions arose that could not be resolved within the framework of mythology and religion. Increasingly obvious became the need to form rational understanding of reality, especially since rational knowledge had a significant impact on social practice, consciousness. They became the first elements of science and, among other things, required generalization, systematization. Gradually formed a conscious desire for a holistic perception of the world on the basis of precisely this knowledge. The world perception was increasingly based on an understanding of the essence of processes and phenomena surrounding man, on more logical theoretical conclusions, increasingly confirmed by empirical experience.
So there was a rational type of outlook , i.e. in fact, what is now called worldview. It includes system views, beliefs, ideals, principles, > defining the relationship of a person to the surrounding world, to society, to himself, revealing the place and role of a person in this world, and formulating means and ways of knowing, transforming the world and yourself.
In a world view, there are usually two levels: 1) figurative and emotional; 2) conceptual-categorical, rationalistic. Mythological and religious types of outlook are more of an emotional-figurative character. In contrast, the rationalistic type of worldview is based primarily on on rational thinking
and is a logically grounded system of views and assessments of reality, some connecting education on the path to a philosophical worldview.
However, the philosophical, in the full sense of the word, rationalistic outlook has become far from immediately. Moreover, despite certain advantages over other types, the philosophical worldview does not exclude, but rather presupposes the existence and development of other worldviews, because philosophy "nourishes" the achievements of other types of knowledge and worldviews. In addition, the earlier types of his earlier philosophical views did not disappear with time . It is important that other types of outlook to some extent include and include elements of the philosophical, because they represent a generalized reflection of reality and are manifested in relation to people to the surrounding reality, based on well-defined principles.
What has been said allows us to conclude that philosophy without a worldview and a worldview without philosophy do not exist. It is due to the fact that philosophy uses conceptual-categorical apparatus, scientific knowledge, which has been tested by public practice, is distinguished by the logical nature of the conclusions, and also by the critical attitude to one's own content. Philosophy comprehends not only the world that exists by itself, but also the significance of this world for people. She considers the issues of the meaning of life and death, freedom and responsibility, due and existent, etc. These attributes correlate philosophy with science, mythology, religion and, naturally, predetermine the inclusion of philosophical views in different types of worldviews, allow us to identify the characteristic features of the philosophical worldview and formulate it.
First, we must say that the philosophical worldview is based on the most generalized knowledge and therefore has many aspects, the ability to manifest itself in various ways, accumulate the experience accumulated by people.
Secondly, in it, in a concentrated form, the level of development of an individual society, an original civilization, and humanity as a whole should be reflected.
Third, the philosophical outlook can not only reveal the universal that is inherent in the mythological picture of the world, the religious predetermination of the interpretation of being, but also put forward various ideas that sometimes contradict one another the rational and irrational emergence and development of the world, the place of man in it, the role of people in the cognition and transformation of this world. It is due to the fact that philosophy includes all significant information about reality, but through their critical comprehension, the continuous increment of the new, through the denial of negation, the acquisition of quality through quantitative changes.
Fourth, the content of the philosophical worldview will include the most general answers: the eternal and the temporal; about the infinite and final; about single and incalculable; about the sublime and the low; about truth and error; about justice and deceit; about perfection and primitiveness, etc.
Fifth, this worldview can not but consider, assess, not determine the entire universe, and an individual; and the causes, sources of the development of the world, and its future; and what is good, and what is evil; and what is beautiful, and what is ugly; and what is man, and what is the meaning of his life; and what is non-living nature, and how life came into being and life.
Sixthly, it is also evident that philosophical worldviews in accordance with the "party" belonging are determined by the principles that are appropriate for a particular philosophical party, school, and also by the logic of their inherent knowledge. In this case, each party and school in the process of its historical development previously formulated images and models of the world, the place of man in this world can not be rejected. In the previously formed concepts, new "strokes" will be added.
Seventh, the philosophical worldview in the relationship of different "parties" and schools makes it possible at the level of the general and universal to understand the content of the laws of being, the essence of its important components on the basis of a different orientation of approaches.
Of course, in each philosophical party, the school will always have subjectively interpreted conclusions of concrete sciences, which does not exclude, but presupposes the possibility of large groups of philosophers and the positions of representatives of society separating their positions from adhering to any independent philosophical world outlook concepts. That is how such philosophical views as Freudianism, Marxism, etc. appeared and were affirmed, for exampleThe distinguished features and features of the philosophical worldview give it a cultural significance, allow us to say that it is necessary to comprehend it to all those who are actively engaged in scientific, including legal research, who care about the present and the future of their country, of humanity and of themselves, and also help to formulate its definition.
Philosophical worldview is the theoretical level of the world view, the most systematized, maximally rationalized and ultimately general system of man's views on the world, which recognizes the substantial basis of life, which allows to formulate an integral picture of the world, determine the role and place of a person in it, and the means and ways of it knowledge and transformation.
In the genesis of the philosophical worldview, three main stages of its evolution can be distinguished: cosmocentrism , theocentrism , anthropocentrism.
Cosmocentrism is a collection of ideas and views based on the explanation of the surrounding world, the phenomena of nature through the power, the omnipotence, the infinity of outer forces (Cosmos), and according to which everything that exists depends on the cosmos and cosmic cycles.
This system of philosophical views was characteristic of the thinkers of Ancient India, Ancient China, and also a camp quite common in ancient Greece.
Theocentrism is a collection of ideas and views based on the explanation of all things through the domination of the inexplicable, supernatural power of God.
This system of philosophical and religious ideas was formulated by philosophers who held religious views, and is common in countries of medieval Europe.
Anthropocentrism, the totality of ideas and views based on a philosophical worldview centered on the human problem and on the value of a person determines the essence of the world and its future.
This system of philosophical views has been formed in the countries of Europe of the Renaissance, New and Modern Times, as well as inherent in some modern philosophical schools. It should be noted that at all times of development of philosophical thought a person was at the center of her attention. Moreover, all philosophical worldviews are the result of people's thinking creativity, that is, anthropocentrism has always been present in them. This is also true in the case of a religious worldview. Even in completely theocentric religious philosophical worldview systems are anthropological. Indeed, a person is central and the most "responsible" due to the inherent reflection of his figure among all the creations of God. In other words, anthropocentrism as a type of world outlook is relatively independent, because its attributes are also present in other worldviews.
Within the framework of the two main philosophical parties, which acquired their status as a solution to the "basic question of philosophy," such worldview structures as materialism and < strong> idealism.The materialist philosophical worldview is a collection of ideas and views based on the recognition of matter as the essential basis of substance, and the whole world in its diversity is a moving and developing matter, the justification of the conclusion that consciousness is a property of highly organized matter.
An idealistic philosophical worldview is a collection of ideas and views based on the assertion that the starting point of the real being of everything is not matter, but its opposite: the idea, the world mind, the spirit, the absolute idea.
As you can see, these are two opposites by their nature forming a type of philosophical world view. If we adhere to an idealistic worldview, then we practically become the position of a religious worldview and "deprive" a man of his creative content, because everything is predetermined by the highest idea and it should be guided in your life.
If we accept the materialistic conception of the world, man, his consciousness, then we turn our gaze to ourselves, to our possibilities in real cognition of everything that exists, to determine our place in this world, and also how to organize ourselves, humanity , in order to preserve life and provide social progress to mankind. Man - the highest stage in the development of nature, and the meaning of his being is to provide everyone and everyone a positive future, to reveal themselves in a truly human destination. Beyond this provision it is impossible to understand the meaning of existence, its regulatory principles, objective expediency and harmony in the universe.
The world outlook and the philosophical worldview are directly related to such a phenomenon of thinking as the world view. The ego is due to the fact that the worldview creates a set of ideas about being, the structure of reality, its real functioning and development. A significant contribution to the formation of the picture of the world is brought by the philosophical worldview, since it is, as noted, the most generalized and simultaneously integrating knowledge.
The picture of the world is an ordered set of ideas about the nature, essence and structure of objective reality, forms, ways and laws of its emergence, formation and development, formed on the basis of initial worldview ideas, views, principles, and also the experience accumulated by mankind.
Obviously, both the historically changing nature of knowledge, and public practice, determine the construction of differing world pictures, which replace and complement each other. A significant role in this is played by the level of development of society, its culture, science, production, as well as the world outlook of people. Any person forms such a universal image, which most corresponds to his worldview, culture, needs and interests. Forming a picture of the world, people determine their place in the drink, their abilities and destinations, their own sense of being.
At the same time, the picture of the world, being formed in thoughts, turning into a certain image, becomes a means of ontologizing ideas about the real world, and, consequently, determines the activity of a person, the direction and character of his expedient activity.
In the public consciousness, pictures of the world are also created. True, they are formed within the framework of specific forms of social consciousness, and this explains not only their differences in the types of knowledge, but also their practical effectiveness. Some disclose the substantive and structural elements of the existing world, others call for believing in the divine intentions, some reveal the material and economic basis of human existence, others - its socio-political organization.
Within the framework of the philosophical approach to characterizing the world's pictures, consider the religious picture of the world, the scientific picture of the world, the actual philosophical picture of the world. The main differences between them are determined by two main criteria:
1) highlight the main contradictions that are the cause and source of development of all that exists and which should be resolved by mankind;
2) the main ideas that are included in the picture of the world and are designed to resolve the highlighted contradictions.
The religious picture of the world appears along with the birth of theological views and is based on the notion that the creator of everything is the creator who is everything, and he in each of us . The world was created by the plan of a higher entity, which is transcendental.
A characteristic of the religious picture of the world is that it is not a "holistic" system of knowledge. The fact is that every picture of the world created by the current religious views has "its" creator. Moreover, since in each of the religious beliefs there is a symbol of faith, then the actions of man in relation to the creator and his own have their content, their principles and rules "elevations". For example, Buddhism is focused on improving personal traits and properties, and Christianity - for strict obedience and observance of established canons.
However, a common position for all religious paintings of the world is that they are based not on the totality of true knowledge, but on knowledge-beliefs, religious faith. The center of any religious picture of the world is the image of God or gods, as well as the idea of what is the highest true reality. Also common to all religious paintings of the world is the principle of providentialism , the divine predetermination of the created being and its imperfection.
The scientific picture of the world - is an integral system of ideas about the general properties and laws of objective reality, giving an essential understanding of the material world as a moving and developing matter, explaining the origin of life and man on the basis of knowledge that can be tested, reproduced and confirmed by experiments.
The scientific picture of the world is a direct alternative to the religious picture. The world and the person here are considered as objects of research. The scientific picture of the world was formed approximately in the XVII century. under the strong influence of the ideas of evolutionism and experienced natural science. The following scientific knowledge is attributed to the main elements of the scientific picture of the world: about nature, about society, about man and his thinking. All this knowledge is taken from the natural, technical, social and human sciences, as well as from the history of the development of human society and the person himself.
In the scientific picture of the world, general scientific and private scientific pictures of the world are sometimes distinguished. They do not contradict each other 'and are not, strictly speaking, correlative as part and whole. It's a different matter. In the general scientific picture of the world, the scientific knowledge accumulated by all the sciences about nature, society, man and the results of his activity in the development of science in general is synthesized and synthesized. As for the private scientific pictures of the world, their appearance and formation is due to some particular sciences and their role in the development of science and social practice. For example, such spiders as physics, chemistry, exploring the physical and chemical forms of the motion of matter, predetermined the formation of appropriate scientific world pictures.
The most important feature of the scientific picture of the world is that it is built on the basis of scientific knowledge, the fundamental principles underlying the provisions of a particular scientific theory, a concrete science, which takes in a given epoch leading position.
The most general picture of the world gives philosophical views. Being a rational-theoretical way of knowing the world, the philosophical world
view reflects in the philosophical picture of the world harmonious interaction components of the known real world, a person with its fundamentally distinct from all animal properties, identifies the contradictions of the existence of all existing as the cause of its development, as well as ways and means to resolve them and the future of mankind.
Philosophical pictures of the world are also diverse, but they are all built around the relationship "world - man"; or man-world & quot ;. Depending on the ratio of the initial principles, the "world - man" highlight objectivistic and subjective pictures of the world.Objectivistic construction of the world's pictures, regardless of whether they are materialistic or idealistic, give priority to the world , considering that it is objective. Subjectivist concepts, in contrast to objectivistic concepts, believe that the world is the creation of "I", and all other reality is refracted through this unique subjective "I". In this case, there is the problem of finding an answer to the question about what is in the world, is present from us, and what - from the world itself.
Throughout the history of the development of society, the religious, scientific and philosophical worldviews were in complex relationships. Each of them claimed its exceptionality. Only in the second half of XX century. it became obvious that none of the world's pictures can assert its priority status and the right to truth as opposed to the views of "competitors". The fact is that at this stage of the development of science and public practice, it is entirely permissible to coexist all the pictures of the world in a single universe of human knowledge.
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