Political idealism in the post-World War II period
In the spirit of Wilson's idealism in the post-war period, various projects for the formation of a supranational authority designed to take over part of the sovereignty of national states were developed. Thus, in 1948 R. Aron and A. Mark in the work "Principles of pacifism" advocated the creation of a unified federal government that would replace the power of sovereign national states.
The social and philosophical substantiation of this idea was given by the Catholic philosopher and theologian J. Maritain in the work "Man and State" (1953). In proposing to view society as an autarkic and self-sufficient unity, Maritain saw his main purpose in providing the inner and outer world ( parx ). Since, he said, a single state is not able to provide such self-sufficiency, it is not able to guarantee peace. Therefore, in his opinion, the community of people should be large enough to become autarkic and self-sufficient. He sought the solution of this question on the path of forming a "politically organized international community" in which the states, although they continue, "will be deprived of full sovereignty."
Various projects of the constitutional structure of the new world state were also proposed. One of the first among them were the projects of Larmer (1946), de Mitterier (1947), Borghese (1949). To date, there are at least a dozen drafts of the world constitution. In the early postwar years, such organizations as the Union of European Federalists (SEF) and the World Association for the World Federation were founded, which was later renamed the World Federalist Movement (WFD).
The ideological basis of the modern federalist movement was formulated in the so-called "Ventotene Manifesto" (after the name of a small island off the western coast of Italy) by the Italian antifascists A. Pinelli and E. Rossi in 1941. They were united by the Wilson idea of the possibility of creating a perfect world order free from wars and interstate conflicts.Such active non-governmental organizations as the UN Association, the Stanley Foundation, the authors of the so-called Stockholm initiatives, etc. took an active part in developing such ideas. The Club of Rome and the International Institute for Applied Research, the so-called Paris Group, play an especially important role in this area, Council for the Study of Mankind and other organizations.
At the heart of their development lies the following rather simple postulate: if the world is one, then it is necessary to develop a global model that reflects the global system as a global system for all components of this world. By the end of XX century. was put forward about 20 global models that offered different solutions to the problems facing humanity. This, first of all, received a wide resonance of the model "Growth Limits spouses Meadows, D. Forrester, "World Dynamics", M. Mesarovic and E. Pestel, "Integrated Model of the World" and others
A special report entitled "Restructuring the international order", prepared on the initiative of the Club of Rome by J. Tinbergen, is characteristic from this point of view. It in particular justifies the idea that "the existence of an international system requires fundamental structural reforms" and the creation of the "new international social and economic order."
The author of the report saw the main goal of such a restructuring in "reaching a worthy life and prosperity for all citizens of the world". This goal, in his opinion, can be realized on the basis of the "fair social order, both national and international," by the equation of the possibilities of people both within individual countries and various states on the world arena.
Moreover, a number of globalists go even further, stating the need to clothe this system in state-political forms. In the opinion of the most optimistic globalists, if the level of interdependence in the (international) system continues to grow, this will actually accelerate the emergence of a global "community" or "world culture". It, in turn, will lead to the formation of a world "state" capable of managing the growing level of interdependence. "
For all the attractiveness of these arguments, the experience of history teaches us the obvious truth that the perfect world order is appropriate only in theory as an ideal that can not be realized, but which people should strive for.
A far-reaching attempt to revive Wilson's ideas was made during the period of J. Carter's presidency in the second half of the 1970s. The idealist J. Carter made the strategy for the protection of human rights the cornerstone of his foreign policy strategy. Moreover, it should be recognized that it was not only the Soviet Union and other communist countries, but also authoritarian and dictatorial regimes in Asia, Africa and Latin America, notwithstanding, it was not alien to the practice of double standards when assessing the policy of a friendly mode.
But still, rhetoric in defense of human rights was often sacrificed to the power politics of pressure on the Soviet Union and other countries that were not favorable to Washington. This trend became especially noticeable with the coming to power in 1980 of President R. Reagan, when the protection of human rights was wholly subordinated to power politics.In general, the idealists of the Wilsonian starter proceed from the belief that there is some kind of natural or at least achievable harmony of interests of states that are committed to preserving peace. Because of this, they argued, states are able to resolve problems arising in the international arena, relying on common sense, guided by public opinion, consistent with the time-tested canons of international law.
In their opinion, the nature of the existing system of government in the country most directly affects the degree of its aggressiveness or peacefulness. Naturally, dictatorial forms of government are more aggressive than democracy, since dictators can undertake military actions on their own initiative without asking the opinion of their people.
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