Political Ideas of Modern Political Philosophy, Modernization...

Political Ideas of Contemporary Political Philosophy

In the second half of the last century, before the threat of an ecological catastrophe, humanity is gradually beginning to realize the enormous value of the diversity of alternative ways of development. It turned out that the stock of variability in culture (including political) is extremely important, therefore studies of culturologists contributed to a paradigm shift in political philosophy. The content of postclassical political methodology has largely determined the transition from the economic-centered, "explanatory" theory to the culture-centric, "understanding." The search for universals of progressive social and political development gave way to a cultural analysis of the specifics of civilizational identity. Thus, within the framework of the postclassical methodology of political philosophy, the leading place was taken by the sociocultural paradigm.

Modernization Theory

The evolution of the modernization theory has greatly contributed to overcoming ethno and economic centrism in modern political philosophy. The first modernization theorists claimed that the Western civilization is universal and suitable for all peoples (VS Neipol). They justified the idea that modernization and economic development contribute to strengthening the homogeneity of different societies and generate a common modern culture that is close to what exists in the West. Today, such simplified representations have long been debunked. The pioneers of modernization seriously relied on the fact that the transition from traditional society to the modern in countries "catching up development" will occur according to Western patterns prescribed by political reforms. However, in modernizing societies a serious value conflict arose when the introduction of Western political standards came into a state of sharp confrontation with traditional cultural values. Often this resulted in civil war, as in Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Pakistan.

Modern research in the field of modernization shows that in cases where political actions are not sanctioned by culture they are not perceived in it as their own, they can provoke a powerful mass protest movement in society, an attempt to destroy, unpleasant political innovations from the face of the earth, to return to traditional political foundations. Quite often, ethno separatism and religious fundamentalism become the answer to tough experiments with traditional cultures.

The civilizational aggression of the West, which attempted to eradicate sociocultural traditions in the countries of the East, gave birth to a powerful process of de-ernerization. At the turn of 1980-1990. many influential Western theorists of modernization development, in particular, S. Eisenstadt and S. Huntington, began to talk about the need to re-evaluate the basic postulates of modernization. This was done very timely, because at the end of the last century it became obvious that many new modern states of Southeast Asia - China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore - chose the way of reinterpreting the national tradition in the process of modernization. Successful modernization practice based on reinterpretation of national traditions in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region contributed to a radical revision of the foundations of the modernization theory itself. As a result, the provisions on the protection, preservation, revival and support of sociocultural diversity, pluralism of ways and ways of life, providing them with freedom of existence and development came to replace the discredited concept of forced modernization.

Today, the neo-modernization concept focuses on recognizing the importance of religion and mythology in the spiritual sphere, respect for the charisma of traditional leadership, using the idea of ​​collectivist cohesion of society. Modern philosophy of neo-modernization is aimed at preserving civilizational identity, developing and strengthening traditions in the context of globalization. Many researchers emphasize that political culture is a key element of comprehension of political life in the country and time sections, therefore, modern political and philosophical studies are aimed at revealing the features of cultural differences in the conditions of globalization.

Initial, rather primitive notions that the process of globalization contributes to the unification of the modern world, the erasure of all socio-cultural differences, have long been debunked. Today it is obvious that cultural globalization, in fact, is a continuation, albeit in a stronger and deeper form, of the invisible challenge that modernization throws. In the course of modern research it was found that in the process of globalization, on a cultural background, serious challenges from pluralism can be observed: traditions that were considered inviolable break down, it is found that in the field of faith, values ​​and way of life there is a fairly wide choice. It seems reasonable to conclude that in the process of globalization, growing nationalism and global differences strengthen cultural pluralism and the fragmentation of the modern world.

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