Politics and Morals - Philosophy for Technical Universities

Politics and morality

How to combine politics with morality? There are, apparently, two principal possibilities - either to adjust morality to the interests of politics (which is often done, especially in autocratic and totalitarian states), or to subordinate morality. With the present state of human society, the true unity of morality and politics is possible only on the basis of law, and a high measure of democracy and liberalism of public life serves as a guarantee for this.

Establish an unconditional moral beginning of an inner and all-round relationship between true morality and intelligent politics - this is the main claim of moral philosophy to honest politics.

Spiritually elevating a person, morality, according to V. Windelband, can in certain circumstances and disarm it, placing life at a disadvantage. This is especially true when faced with insolence: "Conscience will not allow a moral person to use such means, the use of which can give a decisive advantage over him to his opponent, who has a less sensitive conscience ... This also applies to the life of peoples, and this is necessary take into consideration when the question is about the relationship of politics and morality. " But if the politician will be guided by the consideration that the so-called higher goals give him the moral right not to conform with the moral norms that limit his arbitrariness, he can bring society to the most sad results. A wise politician considers it his duty to coordinate all his political and social decisions and actions with the norms of morality.

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However, in the history of political doctrines as well as in modern ideas one can find the statement that politics is a dirty business: it is on the other side of good and evil and is incompatible with morality. According to N. Machiavelli, state morality is different from the morality of an individual, and the sovereign, who wants to stay in his chair, may not be virtuous, but must necessarily acquire the ability to appear or not to appear as such, depending on the circumstances. He justified this with the fact that in all actions of people, except for the difficulties of success, there is always always near to good and evil, so closely associated with it that it is impossible to use one without being subjected to another. This proves all the actions of people. Thus, good is achieved with difficulty, unless only if happiness is so favorable to you that it overcomes this ordinary and natural inconvenience.

Social thinkers have long learned to clearly distinguish political criteria from moral ones. However, understanding of their unity is also necessary. Thus, J. J. Rousseau condemned those statesmen who believe that in a concrete situation, when everything is decided by the formula "the end justifies the means", scruples in ethical matters seem to be superfluous. The imperative must always be at the height of moral sanctions - to be fair, honest and not overestimate oneself, its capabilities - a sure sign of the wisdom of a statesman.

But no matter what they say, politics allows a cunning if it is combined with the notion of a great mind or great deeds - tricks in politics do not offend it, if this is not treachery, which entails the misfortunes of the people. No real policy, apparently, is possible without at least elements of guile. This is its essence.

The one who has entered the path of a politician is obliged to understand that it is necessary to politically and politically prepare for this ministry - this is one of the thinnest, deepest, most complex and, most importantly, the most important activities. After all, it is known that every profession is taught (shoe, plumbing, etc.), while studying diligently and for a long time. But there was a false impression that for such a delicate matter as politics, only enterprise, assertiveness, sleight of hand and well-hung tongue are needed. And if, says IA Il'in, there are many gullible fools, so then they are foolish enough to trust and trail behind the more lively chatterboxes. And the consequences of this - many semi-educated amateurs are engaged in irresponsible politics. They pose wrong questions, solve them at random, write, print and phrase ... phrase without end.

False decisions based on the power of the authorities are introduced into the mind, become habitual and common views, imperceptibly creating an atmosphere of irresponsible phrasemongering and lies. A vivid example of this is the doctrine of Marxism-Leninism and its petrified ("hard-stone") followers - happy "truth-holders" who have fallen into totalitarian madness with its tragic consequences.

In conclusion, it is worth quoting I. Kant: "A true policy can not take a step without swearing in advance of morality ... because morality is cutting a knot that politics could not untie while they were in dispute." The truth is the best policy! A politician indifferent to moral considerations can not enjoy the respect and confidence of the people.

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