2. Problems of philosophy, its functions. Types of worldviews.
The training course of philosophy in higher education assumes the subjective identification of philosophical problems, since philosophy is not only a special type of worldview, but also a spider. As any science, philosophy, there are five basic institutional features: your subject, your method, your categorical apparatus, your laws, your functions (pragmatist a).
Problems of philosophy as a science
First, ontological (Greek ontos - being and logos - teaching). These problems are connected with the study of the most common questions of being: and what is Being and non-being;
- how to understand the material and spiritual being, what distinguishes the being of nature, society and man;
- what are the reasons for the development of the real world
and what is space and time as a form of being;
- whether there are laws of development of nature, society and thinking.
Secondly, axiological (Greek axios - value and logos - teaching). In this section, philosophy appears as a holistic doctrine of the basic values of the life of human society and the positive or negative attitude of people toward them:
- good and beauty;
- equality, freedom, justice;
- Hope, faith, love;
- culture and anticulture;
- values and antivalues;
- Ideas and ideals.
Thirdly, social (lat. societas - society). The subject of philosophy, studying public life. He received the name "social philosophy". In this section, the most general issues of the emergence, functioning and development of society are analyzed:
- the origin of human society;
- spheres of social life;
- types and types of social communities (race, ethnos, peoples, nations, strata, groups, classes);
- types and types of social relations of people, as well as public institutions and organizations.
Fourth, the anthropological (Greek anthropos - man and logos - teaching). This section of philosophy concerns all fundamental questions of human existence:
- the origin of a person;
- the essence and basic features of a person;
- biological and social in man;
- the essence of the concepts: "person", "individual", "individual", "personality", "personality", "person";
- the socialization of man (education, training, education);
- human needs and abilities;
- the main types and types of human activities;
- interpersonal relations of people: friendship, love, marriage, family, loyalty, loyalty, reciprocity, support and their antipodes.
Fifth, epistemological (Greek gnosis - knowledge, knowledge and logos - teaching). This section of philosophy reveals the doctrine of the cognitive activity of man:
- whether a person is able to know the world;
- stages of cognition (sensory, logical, practical);
- methods of scientific knowledge;
and that such a truth and its main features (abstract and concrete, relative and absolute, subjective and objective);
- what is the criterion of truth, what is the role of practice in cognition.
Sixth, methodological (Greek metod - path, method and logos - teaching). This is an important section of philosophy, a fundamental philosophical problem, since philosophical methodology is universal in its essence and is applicable in all areas of reality and scientific knowledge. The questions of philosophical methodology include:
- the basic methods of cognition, research, creativity of man;
- dialectics and metaphysics;
- experiment and simulation;
- analysis and synthesis;
- methods of analogy, observations and others.
The listed problems constitute the content of philosophical teachings at all stages of the development of human society.
By analogy with philosophical problems, functions of philosophy (Latin - execution), that is, the range of its activities, purpose, role.
So, the subject of philosophy is defined - this is the system of relations "world - man", or rather "universe - man", because the concept of "world" already used by a number of other sciences and is, therefore, private. Everything opposing a person is denoted as the universe, space, nature, the world, matter, having in mind something what is, this, the present. Man is in relation not only to the available, but also to what was and what will be. He lives in three times: past, present and future. This is the universe: potential (past and future) and actual (present) being. What is the range of activities of philosophy, its functions?
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