Psychology and Philosophy of Consciousness
The above are the main directions in psychology at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, which replaced the classical concept that developed in the 17th century and maintained a dominant position until the end of the 19th century. However, the greatest influence on the development of the philosophical interpretations of consciousness proper was provided by the ideas of deep psychology and, in part, the French sociological school, which we will consider in more detail.
The creator of deep psychology Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) for the first time points out that the human psyche is not limited solely to consciousness, as proponents of classical psychology believed. Consciousness is only that which we are aware of at the moment ( point of attention). In addition to the person conscious in the psyche, there are powerful strata of psychic phenomena that are actual to them not realized, but nevertheless having a profound impact on his life and thinking. Freud unites the totality of these phenomena under the general name of the unconscious. The basis of the unconscious is the instincts, desires and representations that determine the motives and motivations of a person, rooted in his deep instincts.
† The consciousness itself is located on the border of the inner world of man with the outside world, directly contacting him. Its main task is to perceive the influences coming from outside as well as from within the organism (that's why it is located on the border of the inner and outer worlds). Conscious - is something that we can easily and naturally use when necessary.
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† Unconscious has a rather complex structure. In the concept of Freud, there are four types of unconscious :
1) the preconscious - is the content of the psychic life, which at the moment is unconscious, but can easily go into consciousness. The preconscious includes those impressions, thoughts and experiences that simply left our attention at the moment. They are easily restored in the mind by a simple recollection. Layer preconscious is directly subconscious, but over unconscious;
2) superseded - this is translated from consciousness into the unconscious and held there the content of consciousness, associated with morally unacceptable to man passions, desires and aspirations. The displacement of such desires from the sphere of consciousness is one of the most important protective mechanisms of the personality, thanks to which the human psyche is squeezed out unpleasant memories, unworthy aspirations and shameful desire. In the normal state, the repressed is blocked and not allowed into the consciousness, although it gradually influences it;
3) archaic heritage - is the content of the psyche, which is the totality of value orientations, moral prohibitions, social norms. Usually it is denoted as internal censor & quot ;, conscience, or moral sense. This content, acquired as a result of child identification with parents, contacts with social environment, cultural traditions, etc.;
4) the unconscious itself - the lowest (deep) substructure of the human mental apparatus. The unconscious are the biological processes that take place in the body, which the person does not even suspect. It contains the sexual and aggressive drives, fantasies and desires of man. The transition of the unconscious itself into consciousness is very difficult or impossible at all. The unconscious is manifested in dreams, psychoneuroses, and the like.
The preconscious, repressed and archaic heritage are characterized by having a "two-fold existence": they were conscious, for various reasons became unconscious and under certain conditions again can become conscious. By nature they are secondary, produced from consciousness.
The unconscious itself exists before and regardless of consciousness ; it is the unconscious as such. Unconscious is primary education. In this area there is no clear structure and order, chaos reigns in it; this is a completely illogical realm. & quot ;. In the unconscious live and there are unknown forces that are beyond our control. Never acting openly to the illuminated space of consciousness, from the dark depths of primitive biological instincts, the unconscious engenders powerful drives that largely determine the life and destiny of man.
The Swiss psychologist Karl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), the founder of analytical psychology, like Freud holds the view that only a very small part of human actions are accomplished with a clear understanding of their purpose and cause. Much more often, events take place and actions are performed, and only then the person asks himself why he did it that way, and not otherwise. A person never completely understands anything and never completely understands anything. What we call a psychic, soul, is not in any way identical with our consciousness and its content. Consciousness is a relatively recent "invention" nature, and it is still in the "experiment" stage; it is fragile, vulnerable and easily vulnerable. A significant part of our soul, Jung gives to the unconscious, which he understands a little differently than Freud. In the unconscious, Jung identifies two varieties : the personal and collective unconscious.
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† Personal unconscious includes:
1) all the mental content, perceived by a person during his life, but forgotten, gone from the actual memory. Forgotten thoughts do not cease to exist. They are present beyond the threshold of the memory, from which they can appear spontaneously, at any time, often after many years of total oblivion;
2) all the impressions and perceptions that were realized without reaching consciousness, but nevertheless deposited in memory. We see, hear, smell a lot of things, often without noticing it, but all impressions, even unconscious, remain in our memory, are included in our "I" and are able to involuntarily & apos; float in certain circumstances;
3) all mental content incompatible with a conscious attitude and rejected because of moral unacceptability - "superseded" in the unconscious naughty thoughts & quot ;.
† The collective unconscious contains mental phenomena that are not individual in character, but belong to more or less broad communities of people: social groups, peoples or all of humanity. They are not acquired during the life of the individual, but are for him inherited from their ancestors preformed (pre-prepared) structures of comprehension of reality. Jung calls these thought forms archetypes, or ideas.
So, already a child when entering life has a natural predisposition to comprehend the sensations and impressions received in accordance with those ancient types, images and grounds, according to which the thoughts and feelings of man have long been formed. These images and foundations (archetypes) are mental phenomena inherited from distant ancestors, but not of a genetic or physiological nature, but of a psychic nature.
In essence, the archetype is an intentional impulse, exactly the same as the impulse of birds to nest nests, and the ants build anthills. However, between the instinctual motivations of the animal and the archetypal aspirations of man, there is a significant difference.
Instinct is a physiological phenomenon inherited at the genetic level and inducing stereotyped reactions when a certain stimulus appears.
Archetype - this is not an instinct, but a psychological return, formed about instinct. It can be said that, unlike the instinct, the archetype is not but is occasional.
The formation of the archetype, apparently, is associated with a change in the value of the instinct stimulus that occurred in the early stages of anthropogenesis. Archetype is a psychic phenomenon, it manifests itself in fantasies, dreams, symbolic images. It does not have a strictly defined trigger mechanism and can manifest at any time and in any part of the world.
Archetype is not a rigid algorithm, but a tendency to generate representations and motifs that can significantly fluctuate in details, preserving the unity of the basic scheme (for example, the enemy's motive can be realized in a variety of specific images, but the basic structure of the relationship remains unchanged). Such archetypal ideas belong to the concepts that accompany human life from time immemorial and break into consciousness at every convenient opportunity. As universal thought forms, archetypes are formed long before a person has acquired reflexive thinking. It can be considered that the very appearance of reflection was the result of the painful consequences of violent emotional upheavals associated with the discovery of archetypes as an original, basic content of consciousness.
According to Jung, consciousness, together with the individual and collective unconscious, form a psychic complex, that makes up the human personality. To preserve the mind and mental health, the unconscious and consciousness must be connected in the most intimate way, "to move in parallel ways." If they are split & quot ;, dissociated, psychic instability occurs. In such cases, the complex of the collective unconscious, invading consciousness in the "antiphase" with its meaningful, reflected content, is perceived as something eerie, supernatural, and sometimes deadly.
The unconscious, according to Freud, is zoological, but Jung considers it social. The psychologists of the French sociological school make an even greater emphasis on the sociality of the unconscious: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939), etc. Sociologists proceed from the fact that for primitive consciousness there are no purely physical facts in the sense that is usually given to this word. Having the same sense organs, primitive people feel the same way as we do, but here they interpret their feelings differently. The product of sensory perception in primitive man immediately envelops a certain complex state of consciousness, in which collective mythological ideas prevail.
For the primitive man's worldview, it is not a feeling of weakness in the face of the elements that is characteristic, but, on the contrary, confidence in one's own strength and ability to subordinate the forces of nature through magical rituals. The experience of modern man, limited by what is tangible, visible, perceptible in physical reality, misses just what is most important for primitive man: mysterious forces, signs, omens, etc. Primitive man is convinced that nothing happens "just like that". No event can be accidental. He is deeply convinced: if to break the taboo, there will certainly be a misfortune. Hence follows the conclusion: if misfortune has occurred, the taboo has been violated and, therefore, it is necessary to search for the culprit!
As a result of the revision of the classical concept, it turns out that consciousness, constituting an essentially important aspect of a person's psychic life, does not exhaust all the content of his "I". On the contrary, consciousness is not so big, and most importantly, a relatively recent fragment.
A person acts only if he feels the need for action, i.e. when there is a disturbance of the balance between the external environment and the inner world of man. Thus, human action is a way of establishing an equilibrium between the external and internal world.
Consciousness is a kind of resultant, arising on the watershed internal and external, and balancing the "squeezing" the impact of external circumstances (natural, social, cultural) and "bursting" pressure unquenched passions and desires. Therefore, consciousness plays an important role not only in the human psyche, but in general in his life, forming from the chaos of random and arbitrary external influences and internal impulses a flexible and at the same time stable structural equilibrium of behavior. The activity of consciousness is always connected with an alternative choice of at least two possibilities: which of the two sides - external or internal - is preferred as the basis for the performance of a specific action.
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