Ranking of attributes by the degree of their importance. The problem of determinism
In their life, people have to deal with numerous objects and their signs. Some characteristics are generated, others exist from the beginning. Assume that the object has taken the form of a sphere. In this case, he acquired a sign that he had not previously had. There is no doubt that the lengths are changeable, and their changes are caused by forces. But, stating this circumstance, one should always keep in mind that a physical object can not be deprived of its extent. Being begotten, it initially has extensions that make up a unity with its other attributes, in particular, with the masses and forces. Stressing this circumstance, we can state that the extent is a bound variable. It means that it is included in a complex of variables, which in their unity are just objects. Forces and masses do not give rise to extension. The opposite is also true: lengths do not produce forces and masses. As for the angular dimensions, they also depend on the dynamics of the processes. For example, it is obvious that the angular velocity can not increase or decrease spontaneously.
Similar to changes in the length of bodies and the growth of process durations is the result of some dynamic processes. In the absence of these processes, the duration could not have taken place. In the previous paragraph it was explained that newly emerged objects necessarily have some dimensions. It seems that, however, their durations are counted from zero. But this idea is deceptive. In the experiment, objects that did not have durations were not found. When a physicist uses differential and integral forms, he means that the process he was considering began at the time t = 0. But he had a duration before the beginning of the process.
Unity of physical characteristics does not mean their equality. Forces cause a change in lengths, angular characteristics and durations. But it is not true to say that lengths, angular characteristics and durations cause a change in forces. In the unity of forces, on the one hand, and lengths, angular characteristics and durations, on the other - it is the forces that are the active side. It should be recalled that the forces themselves are a manifestation of potential energy, its negative gradient.
Thus, there is no reason to consider the dynamic and kinematic characteristics to be equally significant. Dynamics dominates the kinematics. This position is usually called the principle of determinism. The term kinematics of Greek origin: kinema - movement. To the kinematic variables, it makes sense to relate durations, lengths, angular characteristics and the quantities derived from them: displacement speed, angular velocity and acceleration. By definition, kinematic variables are opposed to dynamic variables. Dynamic characteristics include forces, masses, impulses, energies. The question of the dynamic nature of the mass is worthy of special consideration.
Consider two laws. According to Newton's law, the magnitude of the gravitational attraction between two objects with masses is and , separated by a distance r , is proportional to both masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, ie:
According to Coulomb's law, the magnitude of the electrostatic interaction force between two charges is proportional to the charge size ( and ) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them:
where r is the distance between the charges and .
In accordance with these laws, the mass is a dynamic characteristic of objects participating in gravitational interactions. The electric charge is a dynamic characteristic of objects participating in electrostatic interactions. In formula (2.3), no charges are indicated. Consequently, they are not dynamic characteristics of gravitational interactions. In the formula (2.4) no masses are indicated. It turns out that they are not dynamic characteristics of electrostatic interaction.
Gravitational phenomena do not react in any way to electrostatic charges. Electrostatic interactions are in a certain way correlated with masses as characteristics of gravitational interaction. Indeed, like the gravitational force and the forces of electrostatic interaction cause the acceleration of bodies. In the formula of Newton's second law, an expression for the strength of any nature, in particular, electrostatic, can be substituted for the expression . Thus, the forces of any nature to some extent enter into the "marriage alliance" with gravitational interactions. To better understand the content of this union, consider two formulas:
( 2 . 6 )
where - the gravitational mass; - gravitational acceleration.
In the formula (2.5) there are purely gravitational parameters. The situation in the formula (2.6) looks fundamentally different. It also includes the electrostatic force (), and the gravitational mass (), and finally, the acceleration interaction (), which bears the traces of both electrostatic and gravitational interactions:
It is significant, however, that performs a different role in the two relations under consideration. Let's introduce the difference between the active and passive dynamic factor. The active dynamic factor determines directly the magnitude of some force. A passive dynamic factor is not part of the force, but experiences the action of force. In the gravel -
tational interactions mrp is both an active and a passive dynamic factor. If mrp is combined with non-gravitational interactions, then it remains only a function of the passive dynamic factor.
1. The nature of physical characteristics is not the same. It is necessary to distinguish the signs of the three genera, namely: 1) active dynamic, 2) passive dynamic, and 3) kinematic features.
2. Dynamic signs are more relevant than kinematic ones.
3. According to the principle of determinism, changes in kinematic features cause forces.
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