The main directions of the metaphysics of modern times

Science is in the center of attention of the main philosophical trends of the XVII-XVIII centuries, serving as the foundation on which in the XIX-XX centuries. the philosophy of science is built. The main areas of philosophy at this time are ontology and gnoseology. Ontology (from Greek ontos - existing and logos - the word, the concept, the doctrine) - the doctrine of being as such, the knowledge of the truly existing, the section of philosophy that studies the fundamental principles of being, the most general entities and categories of what exists. [7, p. 458]. Epistemology (later used the term "epistemology") - in the Greek translation of the "theory of knowledge", the section of philosophy in which the problems of cognition and its possibilities are studied, relationship of knowledge to reality [13, p. 678]. These two areas of philosophy are closely related to the notion of metaphysics, which will often be encountered. Metaphysics (from Greek ta meta ta physika - after physics) - the science of supersensible (accessible only to reason) principles and principles of being. This concept appears in connection with the systematization of Aristotle's works. "Aristotle," writes A. L. Dobrokhotov, "has constructed a classification of sciences in which the science of being as such and of the first principles and causes of all that is called" the first philosophy "occupies the first place in value and value ... In Unlike the "second philosophy" or physics, the "first philosophy" (later called metaphysics) considers being independently of the concrete connection of matter and form ... Metaphysics, according to Aristotle, is the most valuable of sciences, existing not as a means, but as the goal of human life and the source is delighted and I. Ancient metaphysics was a model of metaphysics in general ... The main feature of the metaphysics of the New Age is the focus on the issues of epistemology, its transformation into the metaphysics of cognition (primarily natural science - AL ) (in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, it was the metaphysics of being) [7, p. 362].

In the metaphysics of modern times, two pairs of opposing directions are distinguished: in epistemology, rationalism and empiricism, , in ontology - organicism and mechanicism.

Fundamentals Mechanism (in fact - physicalism) were clearly formulated by the great French mathematician and physicist P. Laplace. This position has several aspects. First, universal determinism, which denies free will: "Any phenomenon taking place is connected with the preceding one ... we must consider the present state of the universe as a consequence of its previous state and as the cause of the subsequent", "The will, the freest, can not generate these actions without motivating reason (in fact, everything here is reduced to a complex machine, assuming a certain external force as a source of activity). Secondly, - denial of chance - chance is only a manifestation of ignorance, the true cause of which is ourselves " [11, p. 8-9].

But the most important for us feature of mechanism is reductionism, reduction of everything to mechanics (in the XIX century. - classical). The essence of this reductionism and at the same time the attitude towards this physicist was very clearly expressed by the prominent physicist and philosopher of the late nineteenth century. E. Mach: "As an inspired toast dedicated to the scientific work of the eighteenth century," he says, "there are often quoted words from the great Laplace: " The intellect that would have been given for a moment all the forces of nature and the mutual position of all the masses, and which would be strong enough to expose these data to analysis, could in one formula represent the movements of the greatest masses and the smallest atoms; nothing would be unknown to him, his eyes would be open to the past and the future. " Laplace meant, as it can be proved, also the atoms of the brain ... On the whole, the ideal of Laplace is hardly alien to the vast majority of modern naturalists ... [15, p. 153]. Indeed, the Laplacian reductionist logic based on the pagination is all composed of atoms, the atoms are subject to physical laws, therefore, everything must obey the physical laws (for Laplace - the laws of dynamics and Newton's gravitation), in the XX century. on the basis of the laws of quantum mechanics, E. Schrodinger and many other great physicists of the 20th century reproduce almost word for word. (see paragraph 15.4).

Such a physicalistic view, as a rule, assumes an elementary paradigm, according to which the properties of the whole (or system) are determined by the properties of its elements (atoms) and their interactions. Holistic (whole) approach, with its central thesis that the properties of the whole can not to be reduced to the properties of its elements (or even determined by it), indicates the presence of qualitative boundaries between physics, biology, anthropology.

At the foundation organicism lies the central concept of biology for the biology (see Chapter 18). By its development is incomparably weaker than the concept of a mechanism, and even more so - the concept of physical mechanics or physics. As an important difference of a living organism from a mechanism is that an organism is a whole that assumes a source of activity within itself.

In the world view of natural scientists of the XVII-XX centuries. empiricism and mechanism prevail, although at the beginning and at the end of the 20th century. there is an increasing interest in rationalism and organicism.

The main difference between rationalism and empiricism is the following. Rationalists (R. Descartes, G. Leibniz, B. Spinoza) believe that the starting point for building scientific knowledge is ideas of the mind, and the main method is deduction. Empiri ( qi ) shy (F. Bacon, J. Locke, J. Berkeley, French materialists, D. Hume) believe that the starting point for building scientific knowledge is experience, and the main method is empirical induction F. Bacon) or the transformation of simple ideas into complex ones (J. Locke).

The theory of knowledge and science itself were born in the XVII century. in the "intense field between the dogmatism of scholasticism (as well as the new reformational religious doctrines) and the skepticism of the" Pyrrhic " [8, p. 181]. As a result, in the experimental sciences the place of absolute certainty, corresponding to the Aristotelian-scholastic ideal cpisteme, scientia occupies the "moral" authenticity, the concept of which "came into the natural philosophy of the XVII century. from theology ", where it" meant the highest state of personal conviction of a person in the truth of the given situation (compare with Luther's "I stand on this and I can not do otherwise") " [8, p. 176].

Now let's look briefly at the positions of both.

thematic pictures

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