Reason and Mind
According to the method of mental activity, the thinking consciousness of personality can be divided into two main types - the mind and the mind. The first of the thinkers who caught the heterogeneity of the character of thinking was Heraclitus, who showed that thinking in one way is less complete, limited, rational, a person does not rise to the universal. Reason is the ability to perceive nature in its entirety, in its movement and interconnection.
In the philosophical and psychological literature until the last years, the concepts "reason" and mind were not specifically analyzed, used not categorically, but as concepts, perhaps, synonymous with thinking, intellect. And only recently, the concepts of "reason" and mind began to be intensively investigated. There have been a lot of work on this topic, which argues that reason - the lowest level of logical understanding. It is rather a worldly, calculating thinking, characterized by concreteness and oriented to practical advantage. Most of the concepts, concepts of everyday life consists of what is called reason, or common sense.
Reason is the highest stage of logical understanding, a theoretical, reflective, philosophical thinking consciousness that operates with broad generalizations and is oriented toward the most complete and deep knowledge of the truth. Thinking at the level of reason, according to EP Nikitin, is freed from frozen, rational forms and becomes consciously free. At the level of reason, the subjective attains maximum unity with the objective in the sense of completeness and comprehensiveness of understanding, and also in the sense of the unity of theoretical and practical thinking. On this level of knowledge are the most profound and generalized nature. A reasonable consciousness is a deeply dialectical process.
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The effectiveness of thinking depends on past experience, the realism of evaluation and the mental abilities of a person, which in turn implies the ability to optimize the organization of thinking, feelings and behavior. The more perfect this organization, the more perfect the mind.
Consciousness, language, communication
Language is as old as consciousness: "Only one person from all living beings is gifted with speech." Animals have no consciousness in the human sense of the word. They do not even have a language equal to the human language. The little thing animals want to communicate to each other requires us to speak. The essence of language is revealed in its dual function - to serve as a means of communication and an instrument of thinking. Speech is an activity, the process itself communication, exchange of thoughts, feelings, desires, goals, etc., which is carried out with the help of language, i.e. a certain system of means of communication. Language - a system of meaningful, meaningful forms - every word shines with the rays of meanings. Through the language of thought, the emotions of individual people are transformed from their personal wealth into the public, into the spiritual wealth of the whole society. Thanks to the language, a person perceives the world not only with his senses and thinks not only with his brain, but with the senses and the brain of all people, whose experience he perceived with the help of language. Keeping in itself spiritual values of a society, being a material form of condensation and storage of ideal moments of human consciousness, language serves as a mechanism of social heredity.Exchange of thoughts, experiences with the help of the language consists of two closely related processes - the expression of thoughts (and the whole wealth of the spiritual world of man) to the speaker or writer and the perception, understanding of these thoughts, feelings of listening or reading. (It is necessary to bear in mind the individual characteristics of those who communicate with the help of a word - they read the same thing and read the same.)
A person can express his thoughts in a variety of ways. Thoughts and feelings, for example, of a musician, are expressed in musical sounds, the artist in drawings and paints, the sculptor in forms, the designer in drawings, mathematics in formulas, geometric figures, and so on. Thoughts and feelings are expressed in the actions, actions of a person, in what and how he does. Whatever other means may be expressed, they are ultimately translated one way or another into verbal language, a universal means among the sign systems used by man, which fulfills the role of the universal interpreter. This special position of language among all communicative systems is caused by its connection with the thinking that produces the content of all messages transmitted by any sign system.
The closeness of thinking and language, their close relationship leads to the fact that their own adequate (or most approximate to that) expression of thought is in the language. Clear in its content and a slender form of thought is expressed in lucid and consistent speech. "He who clearly thinks is clear and says", says the popular wisdom. According to Voltaire, a beautiful thought loses its value, if it is badly expressed, and if it repeats, it makes boredom. It is with the help of language, written speech that people's thoughts are transmitted over huge distances, across the globe, from one generation to the next.
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What does it mean to perceive and understand the above thought? It is immaterial in itself. Thought can not be perceived by the senses - it can not be seen, heard, touched, tasted. Expression people exchange thoughts through speech should not be taken literally. The listener feels and perceives words in their connection, but realizes what they express, thoughts. And this awareness depends on the level of culture of the listener, reading. "... One and the same moralizing utterance in the mouth of a young man who understands him perfectly correctly, does not [for him] the importance and breadth that it has for the spirit of the mature husband experienced by the experience of life; for the latter, this experience reveals all the strength of the prisoner in such an utterance. " Mutual understanding occurs only when the hearer's brain arises (in view of the meaning and meaning) of the representation and thought expressed by the speaker in the process of learning the language for a certain word. In science, this principle of communication is called the principle of hinting that thought is not transmitted in speech, but is only induced (as it were) in the listener's consciousness, resulting in incomplete reproduction of information. Hence theories in which the possibility of a complete mutual understanding of the communicants is fundamentally rejected.
Consciousness and language form a unity - in their existence they assume each other, as the inner, logically designed ideal content assumes its external material form. Language is the immediate activity of thought, consciousness. He participates in the process of intellectual activity as its sensory basis or instrument. Consciousness is not only revealed, but also formed with the help of language. Our thoughts are built according to our language and must correspond to it. The reverse is also true: we organize the speech in accordance with the logic of our thought. "The image of the world, in the word manifested," these words of B. Pasternak characterize the essence of the unity of thought and word. When we were imbued with the idea, when the mind, Voltaire says, well mastered his thought, it comes out of the head fully armed with suitable expressions, dressed in suitable words, like Minerva, which emerged from Jovian's head in armor. The connection between consciousness and language is not mechanical, but organic. They can not be separated from each other without destroying both.
Through the language there is a transition from perceptions and representations to concepts, the process of operating with concepts proceeds. In speech, a person fixes his thoughts and feelings and thanks to this he has the opportunity not only to subject them to analysis as an ideal object lying outside of him, but most importantly, to convey them. Expressing his thoughts and feelings, a person clearly understands them himself - he understands himself, only having tested the others with his words. It is not for nothing that it is said that if a thought has arisen, it is necessary to expound it, then it will become clearer, and the stupidity contained in it is more obvious. Language and consciousness are one. In this unity, the defining side is consciousness, thinking - being a reflection of reality, it "sculpts" forms and dictates the laws of its linguistic existence. Through consciousness and practice, the structure of language ultimately reflects, albeit in a modified form, the structure of being. But unity is not an identity: consciousness reflects reality, and language stands for ce and expresses in thought. Speech is not thinking, otherwise, as L. Feuerbach noted, the greatest chatterers should have been the greatest thinkers.
Language and consciousness form a contradictory unity. Language influences consciousness - its historically established norms, specific for each people, in the same object differentiate the traits. For example, the style of thinking in German philosophical culture is different than, say, in French, which to a certain extent depends on the characteristics of the national languages of these peoples. However, the dependence of thinking on language is not absolute, as some linguists believe, - thinking is determined primarily by its links to reality, and language can only partially modify the form and style of thinking.
Language influences consciousness, thinking, and in the way that it gives thought some coercion, carries out a kind of "tyranny" over thought, directs its movement through the channels of linguistic forms, as if driving into their general framework constantly iridescent, volatile, individually unique, emotionally colored thoughts. It is this general that can only be adequately transmitted to others.
Not everything is expressible with language. The secrets of the human soul are so deep that they are ineffable by the ordinary human language - poetry, music, and the whole arsenal of symbolic means are needed here.
A person receives information not only with the help of ordinary language, but also through various events of the external world. Smoke signals that a fire is burning. But the same smoke acquires the character of a conventional sign, if people have previously agreed on what it will mean, for example, "dinner is ready". Sign - is a subject, process, action that performs the role of the representative of something else in communication and used to acquire, store, transform and transmit information. Sign systems have emerged and are developing as a material form in which consciousness, thinking are realized, information processes in society are being realized, and in our time and in technology. Under the meaning of signs is meant that information about things, properties and relationships, which is transmitted with their help. The meaning is expressed in the material form of the sign by the reflection of objective reality. It includes both conceptual and sensory and emotional components, willful motivations, requests - in a word, the entire sphere of the psyche, consciousness.
The initial sign system is a normal, natural language. Among the non-linguistic signs are the signs-copies (photographs, fingerprints, prints of fossil animals and plants, etc.), signs-signs (chills-a symptom of illness, a cloud-precursor of approaching rain, etc.), signal signs a factory whistle, a bell, applause, etc.), signs-symbols (for example, the double-headed eagle symbolizes the United States statehood), signs of communication - all set of natural and artificial languages. Signs of artificial systems include, for example, various code systems (Morse code, codes used in compiling programs for computers), signs of formulas, various schemes, a traffic signaling system, etc. Any sign functions only in the corresponding system. The structure and functioning of sign systems is studied by semiotics.
The development of sign systems is determined by the needs of the development of science, technology, art and social practice. The use of special symbols, especially artificial systems, formulas, creates enormous advantages for science. For example, the use of signs, from which formulas are made, makes it possible in an abbreviated form to fix the connections of thoughts, to communicate on an international scale. Artificial sign systems, including the intermediate languages used in engineering, are a complement to natural languages and exist only on their basis.
Language and in general the whole richest symbolic-symbolic sphere does not have a self-sufficient meaning. All the powers of the soul, all the possibilities of verbal communication (and thinking is possible only on the basis of language) are aimed at communicating with the world and with ones similar in the life of society. And this is possible only under condition of adequate comprehension of existence.
So, we have considered the problem of consciousness in its various aspects. At the same time, we note that the word consciousness contains the root zn words zn-at, zk-a-tion. It turns out that consciousness and knowledge are related word-concepts. Therefore, the consideration of the problem of consciousness in all its variations quite logically requires a transition to an examination of the theory of knowledge that continues and deepens the understanding of the essence of consciousness itself at a different level of manifestation of its cognitive, efficiently creative essence.
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