Reason, conditions and excuse., Dialectical and mechanistic...

Reason, conditions, and reason.

In order for the cause to cause an effect, certain conditions are required. Conditions are phenomena necessary for the occurrence of a given event, but they do not in themselves cause it. Although the conditions themselves can not cause an appropriate investigation, but without them the reason is powerless. Even Galen said that no reason can cause disease, if there is no susceptibility of the body. It is known that a person, whose body has been hit by certain microbes, can get sick, and maybe not get sick. The nature of the conditions depends on the mode of action of this cause and the nature of the effect. Changing the conditions, you can change the way the cause works, and the nature of the effect.

The reason must be distinguished from the reason - external shock, contributing to the cause. So, the motive is the murder of the Austrian Archduke in Sarajevo - triggered the causes of the First World War.

Dialectical and Mechanistic Determinism.

Determinism is a philosophical principle according to which the phenomena of nature, society and consciousness are connected with each other by a natural causal relationship and condition each other. The cause, conditionality is infinite - can not be neither the first (ie causeless) cause, nor the last (ie, non-hereditary) effect.

Dialectical determinism comes from recognizing the diversity of types of causal relationships, depending on the nature of the laws that operate in a given sphere of the phenomenon. It is incompatible with mechanistic determinism, which treats the whole variety of causes only as a mechanical interaction, not taking into account the qualitative uniqueness of the laws of various forms of motion. Denying the objective nature of accidents, it leads to fatalism. Such determinism is applicable to certain engineering calculations of machines, bridges and other structures. However, one can not explain from these positions, for example, the patterns of behavior of microparticles, biological phenomena, mental activity, social life.

Necessary and random.

There are no forces that would stop the movement of celestial bodies and the development of matter. It is impossible to turn history back. People have long noticed that events in nature and society are committed with inexorable force. From this, both correct and incorrect conclusions were made. Whatever happens to a person, people say: "What to be, that will not pass." Faith in fate - fatalism - is based on the position that in the world, in the life of man everything is prescribed and predetermined in advance. There were philosophers who believed that everything in the world absolutely comes true - all that we see can not be otherwise than it is.

From the correct position about causality of the phenomena of nature and society, these scientists and philosophers made the wrong conclusion that in the world there is only necessity, but there are no accidental phenomena. Thus, B. Spinoza argued that an accidental phenomenon is called exclusively because of the lack of our knowledge. In such an assertion, two different concepts are identified: necessity and causality. Random phenomena are causally caused. But from this random phenomena do not become necessary. Not everything that occurs arises from necessity. Randomness in the objective world has a specific role. Randomness does not have its basis in the essential properties and relations of the object. It is not something historically prepared by the course of development of this object. Randomness is something } which under these conditions may be, but may not be, it can happen , but can happen in a different way.

In the surrounding world and in people's lives, necessary and occasional events are made. Denial of objective randomness is false and harmful from the scientific and practical points of view. Recognizing everything equally necessary, a person turns out to be incapable of separating the essential from the unessential, necessary from the accidental.

Necessity is also internal and external, i.e. generated by the nature of the object or the confluence of external circumstances. It can be characteristic of many objects or a single object. Necessity is an essential feature of the law. Like the law, necessity can be dynamic and statistical.

It is not right to think that phenomena can only be necessary or only accidental. The dialectic of necessity and chance consists in the fact that chance appears as a form of manifestation of necessity and as its complement. Consequently, randomness takes place in the bosom of necessity. Why is necessity manifested in the form of chance? The general, natural is manifested only through the individual, and in the "modeling" individual, as already mentioned, involved countless many circumstances, imposing on him a stamp of uniqueness. Accidents affect the course of development of the necessary process, accelerating or slowing it down and becoming a necessity themselves.

Considering the dialectic of necessity and chance is an important condition for correct practical and creative activity. A person should not bet on the accidental, but at the same time one should not miss the opportunity of chance and ignore the possibility of unfavorable. A lot of scientific discoveries and inventions in technology was carried out due to a favorable confluence of accidental circumstances. No matter how calculated our actions, we still leave something to chance. Fire staircases at home, life and property insurance, enhanced medical staff on holidays, etc. - all this is designed for a possible accident.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)