S. Kierkegaard, F. Nietzsche - Philosophy

With. Kierkegaard

The Danish theologian, the philosopher - the representative of the philosophy of life and the writer Seren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), like Schopenhauer, voiced distrust of reason. He denies the one ideal beginning of the world, whether it be will, mind or anything else from the field of absolute moments of consciousness. Kierkegaard put forward the idea of ​​"existential thinking". Unlike scientific thinking, proceeding from theoretical principles (it is abstract and impersonal), the thinking existential (from latelat.exsistentia - existence) is associated with the inner spiritual life of the person, with her intimate experiences: it is this kind of thinking that only and can be truly concrete, having a real human meaning. While objective thinking, according to Kierkegaard, is indifferent to the thinking subject and his existence, the subjective thinker as existential is interested in his thinking: he exists in it. By virtue of this, he can not relate to reality as to something objective as such, not "affected" human subjectivity. At the same time, Kierkegaard paid close attention to the instability of human existence, his doom to death, fixing it in terms of "fear", "doubt", "awe" etc. Extremely complex and full of contradictions, human life does not lend itself to the efforts of the understanding to understand it, which results in the "powerlessness of thought", the genuine "scandal for reason", and hence the transition to myth.

Naturally, Kierkegaard could not hold onto this cold and open personal summit for a long time on this pessimistic conclusion. As a result, personal intuition, elevating the idea of ​​man, led to the apology of fear, for the overcoming of which and consolation, Kierkegaard believed, religious communion with God is necessary. Without accepting inter-human communication for a possible form of escape from personal loneliness, Kierkegaard returns to the fold of the Christian religion, in which God also has a personal form. Kierkegaard contrasted belief in reason as the beginning of a completely irrational, rooted in the will, which he interpreted as the root of human existence preceding to every reason.

Kierkegaard's undoubted merit lies in posing the human problems proper, the problems of subjective being: he focused his attention on the fear and horror of immediate being (Kierkegaard called one of his books "Fear and Awe," 1843). According to L. Shestov, he departed from the traditional ontological analysis of being and focused on the most sensitive experiences of the personality of his unique being.

F. Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) is a German philosopher and philologist, a bright preacher of individualism, voluntarism and irrationalism.

Nietzsche's work is characterized by an unusual use of philosophical concepts that are generally accepted in philosophy. His ideas, as a rule, are clothed in the form of fragments and aphorisms. Any attempts at constructing a philosophical system are alien to him. According to Nietzsche, the world is a constant becoming and aimlessness, which is expressed in the idea of ​​the "eternal return of the same". Only the concept of things acts as a certain moment of stability in the chaos of becoming. Following Schopenhauer, Nietzsche was at the heart of the world thinking of will as the driving force of becoming, like a rush, "the will to power", the will to expand his "I", to expansion. Nietzsche moved the ideas of Charles Darwin on the struggle for the existence of animals on the life of human society. The central concept of Nietzsche is the idea of ​​life. He is the ancestor of the direction called the philosophy of life. In man, he emphasized the principle of physicality and, in general, the biological, organismic principle. Intellect is only the higher layer necessary for the preservation of organismal formations, primarily instincts. According to Nietzsche, the intellect does not know, but schematizes the world insofar as it is necessary for a practical need. Thinking is metaphorical, which most of all connects us to reality. Each person in his own way constructs the world, based on their individual characteristics: each in his head - his own individual mythology in the conditions of his herd existence.

The theory of knowledge in its classical sense was not the subject of special attention of the thinker. And some of his statements on these issues are imbued with subjectivism and agnosticism. Nietzsche rejects the principles of democracy and historical progress: he contrasts with him amor fati - the love of fate; he also rejects the ideas of equality and justice as "corrupting the wholeness of human nature". Nietzsche, being a supporter of the principle of social hierarchy, develops an elite concept of absolute domination of the "higher caste" - those few that have the right to embody happiness, beauty and good, to dominate the overwhelming majority - the grayness, which is not society, but nature itself supposedly intended to be "public good". The Nietzschean image of the "superman" embodies his criticism of morality. According to Nietzsche, morality plays a disruptive role, suggesting obedience, patience, conscientiousness. All this softens and relaxes the will of man, and this sharply disapproved of Nietzsche's views: he hypertrophied the will, especially the will to power, in the broadest sense of the word. Nietzsche not only characterized the "will to power" as the determining stimulus of man's actions as the main feature of his deeds, but extended this principle to the whole "tissue of being".

Nietzsche's main focus was on cultural issues, ethics and aesthetics, in particular music, and on the ideas of being human. His modern culture was regarded by him as a "decadence culture" when, according to Nietzsche, the increase of intellect weakened the instinct of man, dampening the feeling of his fusion with nature, belittling the meaning of life as the only absolute value. Above all mankind, Nietzsche asserts, there is nonsense. For the culture of decadence, Christian morality is supposedly characteristic, with its cult of refined spirituality and mercy, when at the same time there is a clear depreciation of the value of earthly life and the principles of compassion are strengthened.

Nietzsche's desire to create the foundations of the new morality of the "superman" instead of Christian, it is impossible to consider a new way of religious consciousness to be productive. Nevertheless, Nietzsche's views have and still have a great influence on people's minds; this, apparently, is largely due to the surprisingly elegant literary form of his works in the form of catchy aphorisms, paradoxical expressions, pamphlets and parables. In his polemic with Christianity, Nietzsche, in the words of VS Soloviev, strikingly "finely floats" and his claim to the meaning of the "antichrist" would be highly comical if it did not end with such a tragedy.

In conclusion, I want to say: Nietzsche's works are criticized, and some even simply scolded, but very many of them are read out, highly valued; admission to his works undoubtedly enriches and refines your spiritual world.

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