Science as a sphere of social life, its system-forming institution
Speaking about the life of society as its system-forming institution, we present science as the basic form of social activity, functionally connected with all spheres of social life, playing an innovative role in society. As a system-forming institution of the life of society, science has its own traditions, principles, norms, culture. The specificity of the social and social functions of the sphere of science is determined in accordance with the unifying science in a single whole by scientific complexes - natural, technical, social and humanitarian, having interdisciplinary connections:
- natural sciences - physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, geography, geology, biology, zoology ... and derived from them disciplines that represent the doctrine of nature
- technical sciences - engineering, instrument engineering, aircraft construction, hydraulic engineering, power engineering, electrical engineering, computer science, system dynamics, cybernetics and systems engineering ... Technological knowledge is studying techniques, artificial material means of human activity;
- social sciences - history, economics, pedagogy, jurisprudence, sociology, political science, psychology, cultural studies ... Social studies studies society as a social form of matter (social systems) in movement (activity) and development (creativity) in space and in time;
- Humanities, human sciences - sociology of personality, ethics, social psychology, ergonomics, acmeology, valeology, gerontology, juvenology, immortology ... Humanities represent a variety of fields of human knowledge. In the scientific perspective, the emergence of anthroponomy or human studies as an independent science must take place, which must have the subject of one's own research - the individual, both the individual representative of the human race (general) and mankind (the whole).
Science as a sphere of society, that is, a system-forming institution, provides social life with spiritual innovations that can lead to progressive changes and development of both its separate spheres of life and society as a whole. Science is aimed at obtaining new knowledge, which in its functional refraction in the activity of society leads to new discoveries conducive to social and social development. The role of the scientific sphere of public life is continuously growing. In this law, the interaction of both scientists - producers of new knowledge and those who consume scientific innovations: individuals, social and public institutions, representing all strata of society and spheres of social life - is dialectically reflected. Science suggests:
- own methodological and general theoretical problems;
- specialized theories emerging as a result of differentiation of general theoretical knowledge;
- Fundamental and applied directions for all four scientific complexes.
Science as a Productive Force
The relationship between science and production has gone through various historical stages in its development.
First, at the initial stages of the development of civilization, science could not yet have any significant impact on production, it, as a rule, went alongside the production or even behind it, theoretically generalizing the already obtained empirical way of technical innovation.
Secondly, in the XIX century. a new stage in the interaction of science and production begins - science becomes an immediate productive force. This objective moment of interaction was seen and grounded by K. Marx and defined it as the process of the transformation of science into the direct productive force of society.
The boundary between these two stages lies between the invention of the steam engine and the discovery of electricity (beginning and end of the 19th century).
The invention of the steam engine belongs to the first stage: first the steam engine was created and only later the theory of steam engines appeared. The second stage - the discovery of electricity: first it was discovered in the laboratory by scientists and only later were the methods of its use in social production.
The transformation of science into a direct productive force of society does not mean the appearance of any fourth element in the structure of the productive forces along with objects, means of labor and people: it is about penetration, introduction of scientific achievements into the production process, that is, about the innovation process.
It is precisely with the transformation of the process of obtaining new knowledge - spiritual innovations, into the innovation process, that is, the introduction of scientific achievements into production, that science becomes an immediate productive force. It becomes so in so far as and in so far as and in which it is used in production as knowledge about the laws of nature and society, put into practice: information management systems, nuclear power plants, automated lines of conveyor assembly, etc. That is, science becomes a productive force from the moment when it is innovatively reflected in machines, systems, technologies or methods of production. For example, in the conditions of the modern stage of development of society and scientific and technological progress - in electron-ion-plasma, precision, mechatronic, laser, biological, gene, membrane and other methods, in nanotechnology, etc.
The mechanism of interaction between science and production is as follows: science, as the ideal, through the new knowledge obtained in the process of scientific activity, is embodied in the technical and technological processes and constructions necessary for production. This is the first phase. As a result, production itself, as the leading factor of development (science + production), stimulates new scientific searches and discoveries (this is the second phase), at the new, already scientifically improved level of production, so that the ideal new (scientific knowledge, spiritual innovations) were introduced in the process of production into material objects and systems, that is, the process of innovation took place. The dynamics here is the following: scientific opportunities, through discoveries, innovations become a practical reality in the production process and open up a spectrum of new scientific opportunities.
The peculiarity of science (as ideal) is that in the process of innovation, in the process of production it makes it possible to obtain new materials that do not have analogs in nature, with properties predetermined by man, for example, synthetic fiber, composite and nanomaterials, superconductors, explosives substances and other objects necessary in everyday life and in production (entities).
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