Scientific and technical and engineering ethics
Creating an atmosphere of scientific knowledge and searching for new technical solutions, increasing the effectiveness of science as a direct productive force, the formation of professional moral qualities of scientists and inventors plays an important role.
The professional ethics of the scientist, including the technical profile, is an integral system of certain norms, principles, regulations, prohibitions and rules of scientific activity, communication and behavior of scientists. Its content is determined by public requirements, the specifics of the scientist's activity and work, professional duty, honor and prestige. In the ethics of the scientist, many provisions, norms and principles of general civil morality are specified, but there are also peculiar moments.
The professional ethics of science mainly regulates three types of relations [35, p. 85-86]:
1. The key problem is the attitude of the scientist to the truth, and the main values are the service of science and the production of true knowledge associated with humanistic values and ideals.
2. The scientist is a colleague. In the relations of scientists, in particular in the scientific collective, the norms are the culture of scientific communication, scientific debate and scientific discussion.
3. The scientist is a society. Ethics governing the relationship between scientists and society, within the framework of which there are questions of social and moral responsibility of scientists for their research, results and their social consequences.
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In science, scientific dishonesty, dishonesty, bias, subjectivism, unscrupulousness, dogmatism, scholasticism, plagiarism, monopoly on the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge, conjuncture, administrative-command forms and methods of management, clamping criticism and the struggle of opinions should be condemned and considered unacceptable. , sticking to colleagues of various "labels", persecution of dissenting scientists, lack of freedom in scientific creativity, careerism. Unfortunately, many of these negative phenomena in any era and in any country are widespread in scientific activity. Here I would like to emphasize that the freedom of creativity, pluralism, criticism and the struggle of opinions, dialogue and mutual understanding between scientists are an indispensable condition and driving force for the development of science. They promote progress in the field of scientific activity and work, ensure the existence in science of creative, exploratory and innovative spirit, the production of new scientific knowledge, to a large extent protect science from errors and mistakes, subjectivism, dogmatism, obsolete stereotypes and norms, the monopoly of "semi-officialdoms" and others
Creativity by its nature implies activity, initiative, freedom of spiritual and practical self-expression and self-affirmation of a person. Cognitive (epistemological) function is the most specific for scientific and technical creativity. Successful implementation of it is possible only if the employee approaches the research objectively, i.e. Having the object of knowing the object as it really is. The latter implies that the person has no intentions and goals that contradict the task of seeking the truth.
Scientific objectivity can be presented as a moral requirement, the most elementary and at the same time the most universal in the ethics of a creative worker. Any statement, position, discovery, invention must be comprehensively proven, grounded, deduced by methods and means taken from the arsenal of science.
The desire to drag through their discoveries & quot ;, inventions (for example, a new technology that did not justify itself in production), using demagoguery and other unseemly means, can bring enormous economic, and hence human, damage. Therefore, one must be able to readily change or even reject the favorite idea, the theory, if scientific facts contradict it.
The ethical norm of evidence prompts you to be demanding of yourself, self-critical. She cautions, in particular, against hasty conclusions and publications. However, this does not mean that you need to hide your ideas until the end of their proof. Completed private conclusions should be made public, because they need other researchers.
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The creative decisions of the scientist, the inventor, as a rule, are assessed by opponents, colleagues, experts, etc. The opponent acts as the spokesman of the opinion, which claims a complete or partial refutation of the author's opinion. And if the opponent's point of view seems erroneous to him, then this also needs to be proved scientifically. Respect for the opponent requires accurate quoting of others' works and a correct understanding of the essence of opposing points of view, which requires their careful study. The principle of protection of truth is of particular importance in the ethics of creativity and provides a bold assertion of one's convictions. The popular aphorism attributed to Aristotle is popular: "Plato is my friend, but the truth is more expensive."
Modern scientific and technical creativity is a general form of activity, since it is possible only if the achievements of predecessors are used and information is exchanged between collectives and individual specialists. This circumstance imposes a number of duties on the creative worker. He must give himself a clear account of what is the measure of his merit in science and technology, and in accordance with this be able to correctly assess himself. The extreme manifestation of scientific bad faith is the appropriation of other people's merits, the discovery of others, ideas, decisions, conclusions. It happens that the employee achieves success together with colleagues, but publishes the results only on his own behalf. Violation of ethical norms also includes the use in the original work of someone else's fundamentally important ideas, arguments, etc. without reference to the source. Explicitly expressed plagiarism deprives a person of the moral right to be called a creative worker, a scientist.
In a situation where two or even a few people, sometimes in different countries, come independently to the same results, the priority belongs to the one who first informed the public about their achievements, inventions, discoveries. The question of scientific and technical priority can go beyond interpersonal and group relations and become prestigious for a particular national science as a whole.
In determining the contribution of various scientists and inventors to science and technology, it is appropriate to pay attention to such a phenomenon as co-authorship. Not every kind of work gives a moral right to a personal signature under the publication of search results. We must directly carry out a certain amount of research program, make a creative contribution to the creation of the invention. In particular, only the person whose creative work they created is recognized as the author of the invention or rationalization proposal. A person who did not take part in creating an invention or rationalization proposal can not be recognized as the author . For the recognition of co-authorship, two elements are necessary: 1) the joint nature of the activity; 2) creative work. The co-authors are not considered to be the person who provided technical assistance only when creating the invention or rationalization proposal (making drawings and samples, performing calculations, preparing documentation, conducting an expert test, etc.), as well as the one who expressed the idea or proposed the topic, but did not take part in joint creative work.
The authors of a particular invention or rationalization proposal are determined by the creators of the technical solution. If the invention was created by two or more persons, then it is necessary to take into account the contribution made by each of them to the development of the features included in the formula of the invention (to evaluate this, a certificate of creative participation is used).
The duty of every scientist, inventor is to support and develop democracy in a scientific group. Collectivity not only does not exclude, but also presupposes a free and fullest manifestation of creative individuality. With the joint activity of two or more researchers, mutual benevolence, trust, sincerity in relationships, absence of vainglorious desire to stand out are of importance.
With group creativity, sometimes it is not only difficult, but also impossible to determine the exact measure of the contribution of an employee to the result. Members of the collective are rarely equal in their creativity, but they are all researchers, creators of the new and each of them contributes to their common work. It is very important that the most talented employees appreciate the contribution of ordinary colleagues. Not only get the truth yourself, but also teach others to find ways to the unknown - one of the precepts of the professional ethics of the creative worker .It is characteristic that the professional ethics of people of creative work when they choose a socially significant direction of their activity is linked to their civic position and is important for the life of society.
It should be emphasized that the high moral qualities of scientists, including their technical profile, their moral culture is a pledge of their prestige and authority in the scientific sphere.
Engineer Ethics is the specification of the general norms and principles of morality applied to the conditions of engineering activity, designed to show ways of solving those practical problems and situations that arise from the professional activities of an engineer and require from him a certain moral position [32, p. 342].
Obviously, the ethics of an engineer is determined primarily by the specificity of his activity, a special place in the sphere of material production, an extremely important role in the implementation of scientific and technological progress, "reification" scientific knowledge in public practice. But the traditional patterns of engineering culture, based on natural and technical sciences and aimed at creating local technical devices that meet the requirements of efficiency, quality, reliability, economy, are currently insufficient. World experience shows that they should be supplemented with socio-cultural components. As it was previously repeatedly noted, from the system engineering design the way to the socio-technical design activity has already begun, in which technology occupies a position subordinate to the interests of people and the preservation of natural objects and processes. This quality of engineering and technical activity is determined by the social competence of a specialist, which manifests itself primarily in the ability to identify and assess the consequences of the impacts of technical activities on society and nature. This should be done at the level of construction and decision-making in correlation with the socio-cultural context of their implementation.
Sometimes it is considered that engineering ethics as a set (or system) of norms that govern the behavior of an engineer existed from the very beginning. In such cases, such norms include such things as the need to conscientiously perform their work, create devices that would benefit people and not cause harm (a special case in this respect is military equipment), responsibility for the results of their professional activities, observance of certain forms relations (customs and rules) with other participants in the process of creating and using technology. A number of such norms are fixed in legal documents, for example, in laws relating to security issues, intellectual property, copyright. Some norms of professional activity of engineers are fixed in the administrative regulations governing the activities of an organization (enterprise, firm, institute, etc.). However, there is no single, comprehensive system of rules and principles of engineering ethics to this day. In addition, this approach almost does not distinguish between moral, legal and administrative norms that regulate engineering activities, which is incorrect.
In the most general form, we can formulate three conditions for the implementation of engineering ethics [12, p. 312):
1) the presence of the engineering community (not only special, but also general professional societies and unions), which guarantees moral responsibility in the sphere of professional activity of its members;
2) the development of engineering consciousness (the self-awareness of engineers), which is achieved through the system of engineering education;
3) the existence of social (and economic) structures that provide the conditions for the relevant and moral orientation of the engineer.
In some countries, codes of engineering morality have already been developed for quite some time: "Engineer credo" (Germany), Code of Engineering Ethics (USA), etc., detailing the moral duties of the engineer. Usually, in this case, several more general canons are formulated:
1) the engineer must perform work only within his competence and at the same time try to increase the competence and prestige of the technical profession;
2) be honest, fair and impartial in matters of technical policy, be devoted to your employer;
3) use their knowledge and skills to improve the welfare of society [34, p. 13].
There are numerous engineering and scientific trade unions and societies in the United States that are united under the auspices of three main organizations: the American Association of Engineering Associations, the American Society of Engineering Education; and the "American Association for the Advancement of Science". Their main functions are: creating conditions for the formation and maintenance of professional competence (on the basis of information, communication, discussion of projects and problems, development of criteria for assessing professional activities, etc.); coordination of the work of trade unions and societies; maintaining public and government relations; assistance in improving technical education; the development of a system of professional values that combine freedom of creativity and professional responsibility; creation of a socially favorable ethical climate (through education, the publication of ethical codes, analysis and assessment of conflict situations), the publication of professional literature - newspapers, magazines. They participate in the accreditation of universities, their representatives are on the commission, approving training programs and courses, as well as in the boards of trustees.
It should be noted that the British computer society recorded the rules governing the relationship "engineer-society", "engineer-employer", "engineer-client", "engineer-other engineers". A similar structure is provided in the Code of Ethics National Society of Professional Engineers USA. Since 1975 in the United States there is a Society for Philosophy and Technology, which is actually international and holds regular international conferences on engineering ethics, publishes their materials.
By analogy with science, we can distinguish three main groups of moral norms, principles and rules governing the professional activity of an engineer, three types of his relations:
1. The engineer is the subject of his labor and activity (technology, technology and production organization). The main value in these relations is humanism, which should regulate the activity of the engineer in the development, design, construction and operation of machinery and technology, as well as organization of production from the standpoint of personal, technological and environmental safety.
2. Engineer-colleagues. The main goal in this case is compliance with norms, principles and rules of the culture of engineering communication.
3. Engineer - society. The main requirement here is the social and moral responsibility of the engineer for the results of his work and their consequences.
The underlying, backbone and through-going the principle of engineering ethics should be the principle of humanism, which in its activities, of course, has a specific character. The engineer in all his activities is obliged to regard man as the supreme value and end in itself of social development, constantly taking into account the "human dimension", in every way to promote the humanization of technology, technology and production.
In professional activities, the engineer requires a set of the following quality groups:
1) Humanistic service to scientific and technical progress, dedication to engineering, high professionalism, competence, innovation, diligence, conscientiousness, integrity, discipline, high self-discipline and self-criticism;
2) respect for the work of their predecessors and colleagues, informing their colleagues about advances in science, technology, production organization and best practices, communicability, tact, orientation to pluralism of solutions to engineering problems and problems, observance of official etiquette, correctness in a dispute;
3) professional and personal honor and dignity, concern for the prestige of the engineering profession, high citizenship and responsibility, notification of the public about any use of machinery threatening a person, complicating the ecological situation, etc.
Thus, at present, the essence of the change in professional engineering culture is to establish the correspondence of professional activity, its potential, results and consequences to the criteria of social efficiency and acceptability. Only on this path can be developed correct value orientations and a new type of individual and group professional activity, corresponding to the task of constructive solution of socially significant problems. Social competence, assuming responsibility to others for the consequences of decisions made at all levels of engineering activity - from design to implementation, is today an integral structural characteristic of a professional culture of the engineer.
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