SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF MANKIND UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION
As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:
• know the essence, characteristics and main features of the socio-cultural diversity of mankind, theoretical concepts of the essence and tendencies of globalization, the main directions of the influence of globalization on the trends and prospects of the socio-cultural diversity of mankind;
• be able to use modern methods of scientific knowledge to analyze the socio-cultural diversity of mankind in the context of globalization, to identify the specifics of globalization as a factor in influencing modern cultures;
• master the skills of acquiring, replenishing and realizing knowledge about the socio-cultural diversity of mankind, as well as the essence and content of the processes of globalization, the use of methods and the conceptual apparatus for the analysis of modern cultures and processes of globalization. >
Methodological basis for the study of anthropological problems of globalizationDialectics of globalization and diversity of cultures is actively explored by domestic philosophers, culturologists and anthropologists, scientists of various humanitarian specialties, including on an interdisciplinary basis. At the same time, the efforts of researchers are aimed at solving a whole range of topical problems. They can be formulated as follows.
1. Does human society represent a single organism or does it break up into several relatively independent civilizations?
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2. Will the independent societies in the near future continue to exist as social, cultural and economic systems, or will mankind merge into a single society under the auspices of transnational corporations and the world government?
3. Is the formation of a single global culture based on the so-called "Western"? values, or the world civilization will preserve, and perhaps, re-create local and regional cultures based on other values?
4. Can the preservation of traditional non-standalone elements of culture combine not only with survival, but also with the prosperity of specific societies in the modern world?
5. Are the cultures of humanity divided into "backward"? and "developed", or individual cultures are fundamentally different versions of the development of society?
6. Does the culture form a single complex, or individual elements of different cultures can be combined arbitrarily, but, nevertheless, effectively?
7. Are there universal laws governing the development of cultures?
Other questions may be raised. The answers to them in the final
the result tends to one of the two methodological poles.
The first pole is the methodological concept of cultural uniformity :
- at the core of each culture are universal principles for all of humanity;
differences in cultures are determined only by the stages of their development; cultures that are in the same stage are similar to each other;
- representatives of less developed cultures successfully perceive cultural institutions more "advanced" neighbors, because such institutions would necessarily arise at subsequent stages of development and in their culture.
The second pole is the methodological concept of cultural diversity:
- the principles underlying some cultures can fundamentally differ from the principles of other cultures;
- Many cultural institutions and elements inherent in one culture can not arise in others;
- for cultures that differ significantly in the set of basic principles, the interchange of elements of culture is not simply inefficient, but often disastrous;
- mutual understanding of representatives of different cultures is difficult, because they rely on different principles.
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