Social and economic foundations of power and the state...

Social and economic foundations of power and the state

State power has many sources and manifests itself in various forms, one of the most important of which is property. On its basis, economic power is formed, which has a more or less significant influence on other forms of power. It is property and economic power that make the division of society into various competing and at the same time interrelated and complementary classes, groups, estates, strata, organizations, institutions. Their composition, structure, configuration of relationships in socio-economic, political, spiritual and other spheres determine the essential, system characteristics, integrity, vitality of any society.

One of the most important factors of social differentiation is the heterogeneity and inequality of people in their various manifestations: social, economic, political, cultural, confessional. If you look around the whole history of mankind, it will be found that for all great and successful civilizations, one or another form of social inequality was characteristic. This was discussed in more detail in one of the previous chapters. We only note here that property played a key role in determining the nature and extent of social differentiation and inequality at all times.

There is no doubt that wealth, possession of material, financial, human and other resources provide access to the levers of power, and they together - to prestige and fame. In other words, property gives power, which, in turn, provides opportunities for increasing property. They even say this: there is a property - there is power, there is no property - there is no power. Their unity and interrelation is expressed in particular in the fact that it is precisely from the type of society and property that the type or form of state structure and power largely depends. Therefore, the economic system in each specific historical period manifests itself in specific, concrete forms. It is in this vein that we speak, for example, of the primitive communal, ancient, Asian, feudal, capitalist/market, socialist, communist/administrative-planned economic systems.

It can be argued that throughout the entire written history of mankind, property and power existed and acted in close interconnection, mutually complementing and strengthening each other.

There is no doubt that material, financial resources, wealth, property remain the basic indicators of the system of social stratification of modern society. The thesis of K. Marx and M. Weber remains that the property gives its owners much more advantages in comparison with those who do not possess it.

But it would not be entirely justified to consider that political power depends solely on property, that it is rooted solely in economic power, in immense personal conditions. Throughout the twentieth century, there was a two-way process: on the one hand, diffusion or dispersal of property among an increasingly broader population and, on the other, its concentration in major institutions. As a result, property rights and economic power are dispersed among many owners and subjects of economic activity, although there is no need to speak about the real equality of their rights and power capabilities. The well-known Austrian economist and sociologist J. Schumpeter called this phenomenon "the erosion of the substance of property". It is important to note that under present conditions individual owners in the person of shareholders, shareholders can exercise their property rights within the framework of certain institutions.

The newest information and telecommunication technologies lead to the further transformation of property and, accordingly, its relationship with the state power. Knowledge and information become essential components of strength, wealth and power. According to many researchers, gradually power in society passes into the hands of those who create, process and control knowledge and information. Employees of education, media, culture and art, scientists serve as creators and disseminators of knowledge, ideological attitudes, ideological and value norms and orientations, thereby exerting a significant influence on the political behavior of the general population.

As E. Toffler noted, "knowledge ceased to be an application to the power of money and the power of power, knowledge became their essence. It is, in fact, their ultimate amplifier. This is the key to understanding the upcoming metamorphosis of power, and this explains why the battle for control over knowledge and communication media flares up all over the world. "

Of course, in this situation, the role of private property as a key resource of power needs a certain rethinking. Pluralism and freedom of choice, guaranteed by political democracy and the rule of law, provide a variety of sources of life support. The nature and scale of property and economic power is increasingly influenced by institutions of civil society, various interest groups, trade unions, consumers, local, regional and central authorities, etc.

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