Sociological School in Anthropology
If evolutionists have seen the main subject of social and cultural knowledge in a person, the supporters of diffusionism are in culture, then representatives of a sociological school are in a human society that does not act as a simple sum of individuals, but manifests as a system of connections between people, primarily moral ties, which, as it were, were imposed on people and possessed compulsory force.
General characteristics of the sociological school.
The founder of the philosophy of positivism and one of the founders of sociology - the French philosopher Auguste Comte argued that the life of society is determined not by the will of individual free individuals, but by its own internal laws and by collective representations (religion, customs). Focusing on the use of the methods of the natural sciences with their precise and experimental means of analysis, Contes agreed with the likening of society to natural organisms and emphasized the specificity of that whole organism, in which society and its culture appear.
He considered his important reason as an important factor in the historical development of mankind and, accordingly, put forward the "law of three stages". Stages of development of society and its culture: theological (antiquity, antiquity and the Middle Ages to the XIV century), positive (coming from the middle of the XIX century) - reflected the successive stages of the development of the human mind: religion - philosophy - science. Signs of the advent of the third stage Comte saw in the development of science, the revitalization and harmonization of the whole life of society.
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Within the entire social organism, Comte's attention was attracted by such institutions as the family, the state, and religion. The family serves as a mediator between the clan and the individual and helps the individual to overcome natural selfishness, prepares him for the service of society. An important role was played by such a social mechanism as the social co-operation based on the division of labor. The division of labor, but Comte, will enable a person to engage in the type of activity to which he has a great inclination, which creates the possibility of "consent" in society.
Understanding society as a single whole, consisting of elements connected functionally, paved the way for a new science, which Comte gave the name sociology. In France, the second half of the XIX century. The theoretical study of culture developed in the composition of precisely this science, which formed a sociological school in social (cultural) anthropology. Its largest representative was E. Durkheim, one of the creators of sociology as sciences , as profession and as the subject of teaching. The classic of American cultural anthropology L. White believed that "Durkheim's school, if evaluated in general, was much closer to anthropology than to sociology" .
Emil Durkheim (1858-1917) after graduating in 1882 from the Higher Normal School in Paris for several years taught philosophy in provincial lyceums. In 1896, Mr .. headed the department of "social science"; in the University of the mountains. Bordeaux is the first independent department of sociology in France: he became the first professor of sociology in the world. From 1902 to 1917 he lectured at the Sorbonne. Actually carried out the institutionalization of sociology in France. From 1898 to 1913 he directed the publication of the magazine "Sociological Yearbook". Major works: Elements of Sociology (1889), "On the division of social labor" (1893), "The rules of the sociological method" (1895), Suicide (1897), "Elementary forms of religious life" (1912), Sociology & Philosophy (1924), etc.
Durkheim took the Kontov tradition: the understanding of society and culture as a whole with specific laws of development; priority of forms of collective consciousness; the significance of the division of labor and social consensus, which is reflected in the notion of "Solidarity." Ensuring the scientific validity of research Durkheim sees in addressing exclusively to social facts & quot ;. Social facts "consist of modes of action or thinking, recognizable by the property that they are capable of exerting compelling influence on individual consciousnesses" .
E. Durkheim thoroughly reveals his own method of research. So far, in his opinion, not the things themselves were studied , but our concept about them. Therefore, the most important methodological idea is that we should study the social facts themselves as things, "and not our notion of these facts:" The first and basic rule is that social facts should be treated as things <...>. They need to be studied from the outside, like external things, for in that capacity they appear before us .
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E. Durkheim particularly emphasized the systemic nature of society, arguing that "society is not a simple sum of individuals, but a system formed by their association and representing a reality" sui generis "endowed with its own special properties . The main factors of the stability of society: 1) the functional unity of the main parts of society;
2) the social solidarity of its members. All elements of the social system are in a state of stable balance, the violation of which dooms the social system to inevitable disintegration.
To classify societies, Durkheim introduces the concept of "social type", or "social form". As a basis for the classification, he took the simplest society - the primitive "horde", which, but to his opinion, already outlived itself. Developing, the "horde" becomes clan (by genus). Different associations and combinations of clans give tribe, curia, and phratry. Of these associations, in turn, there are complex social organisms right up to the empire. Thus, every society is the result of a certain complication of one and the same primitive society.
E. Durkheim as the main factor and indicator of socio-cultural life determines the division of labor in society. The degree of division of labor depends on the measure of "solidarity" this or that society. At the first ethane of history, according to Durkheim, the division of labor is still unconscious, individuals participate in it under the pressure of collective forms of consciousness. This is the " mechanical solidarity". The division of labor over time becomes more complex, and the involvement of people in it becomes more and more conscious. The functional dependence between the kinds of activity and cultural institutions is growing. This stage of history received from Durkheim the title of the stage of "organic solidarity." With each type of social solidarity, it connects a specific type of social structure.
An important role for the further development of socio-cultural anthropology was played by Durkheim's doctrine of collective representations. Collective consciousness is one for the entire concrete social group. This consciousness is expressed in collective representations: religious beliefs, myths, norms of morality and law. These kinds of ideas are developed by the social group as a whole. Spiritual values are normative, mandatory for mastering, and compliance with these values of members of society becomes equally compulsory.
On the basis of the theory of collective representations, Durkheim explores the problem of the essence of religion and all roles in society, rejecting the widespread definition of religion as a belief in supernatural beings. According to his version, totemism is the simplest religion. He believes that the main feature of religion, formed from the time of totemism, is the sharp division of the whole world into two halves: the world of the sacred and the world of the ordinary. Durkheim distinguished two main functions of religion: consolidating , supporting social cohesion, and stimulating , as it acts as an incentive for solidary action. The most important function of religion is the strengthening of the social solidarity of the group, the provision of a certain social balance constantly violated by various social impulses and shifts.
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