Space and time - Philosophy course of lectures

Space and time

It is quite clear that all the objects around us have certain dimensions (width-height-length-parameters of their extent in space), they move (change, move) relative to each other or together with the planet Earth-in relation to other cosmic bodies : stars, planets, constellations, galaxies. Similarly, all objects change (move, move) in time: they arise in the process of interaction of material formations, develop and move from one form to another.

Therefore, space and time are universal forms of being - attributes - of material systems. There can not exist an object that would be outside of space and time, as there is no space and time existing per se, outside of constantly moving (changing) matter.

In the history of philosophy, there are two concepts concerning the understanding of space and time, which can be designated as the concepts of Democritus-Newton (substantial) and Aristotle-Leibniz (relational). Their essence consists in clarifying the question: in what relation are space and time to matter.

Substantial concept . It was formed in a metaphysical channel in accordance with the principles of classical mechanics, which were intuitively assumed by ancient thinkers, and fundamentally grounded in the first quarter of the eighteenth century by Isaac Newton. The space was considered as an infinite empty length, containing all the bodies (objects). Time was considered as a uniform stream of duration, independent of any processes, it is absolute. Matter exists by itself and as it were immersed in space and time. Accordingly, the relationship between space, time and matter was represented as a relation between independent substances.

The relational concept (lat. - relative). It originated in the mainstream of dialectical tradition - Aristotle, Leibniz, Hegel; was formulated in dialectical materialism and finally confirmed by Einstein's theory of relativity, which revealed the direct relationship of space and time with moving matter and with each other. The fundamental conclusion, following from the theory of relativity, was: space and time do not exist without matter, their metric properties are created by the distribution and interaction of material masses, that is, by gravity. Einstein himself, answering the question about the essence of his theory, said that earlier it was believed that if by some miracle all material things disappeared suddenly, then space and time would remain. According to the theory of relativity, space and time would disappear together with things.

Einstein Albert (1879-1955), a theoretical physicist, one of the founders of modern physics. Born in Germany in a wealthy Jewish family, since 1893 he lived in Switzerland. In 1900 he graduated from the Polytechnic in Zurich, in 1902-1909 he worked at the patent office in Berne. Later he was engaged in scientific and pedagogical work in the Bernese, Geneva, Prague and Berlin universities. He created a special (1905) and general (1907-1916) theories of relativity. He discovered the law of interaction of mass and energy. The author of the fundamental works on the quantum theory of matter and field: introduced the concept of a quantum of light, as "portions" light, in the form of which it exists, subsequently called a photon (the word "photon" itself was introduced into the scientific revolution in 1926 by physicist N. Lewis), established the laws of the photoelectric effect, the basic law of photochemistry, predicted induced radiation. Developed the statistical theory of Brownian motion, laying the foundations of the theory of fluctuations, created quantum Bose-Einstein statistics. Nobel laureate of 1921 for his works on theoretical physics. Paradox: in 1907, Einstein participated in the competition in the Department of Theoretical Physics of the University of Vienna as a privat-docent, presenting as a competitive work his published article on the new scientific views in the field of quantum phenomena: the faculty recognized the work as unsatisfactory, and 14 years later, for these studies, the Nobel Committee awarded him their prize. Persecuted by the Nazis for ideological struggle against fascism, Einstein emigrated to the United States in 1933, where he worked on problems of cosmology and unified field theory. In 1940, he participated in the writing of a collective letter from physicists to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt about the danger to the planet, the nuclear weapons created in Germany, which also stimulated American nuclear tests. Foreign Corresponding Member of the United States Academy of Sciences (1922), Foreign Honorary Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1926). One of the initiators of the creation of the State of Israel.

Einstein's ideas served as the basis for presenting a materialistic picture of the world, proceeding from the unity of space and time with matter and its movement. According to Einstein, his philosophical worldview was influenced by the views of Kant, Hume and Mach. Rationalism became a feature of its own worldview. Einstein's rationalism found expression in his views on the ideal of physical theory, which he thought of as a unified theory of a geometrized field. His ontological rationalism consisted in the representation of nature as a strictly deterministic system, including uncertainties and randomness.

Albert Einstein died 18 April 1955 year , buried in Princeton, USA.

What is space and time in the philosophical view?

Space is the form of being of matter (attribute) with the property of the extension of all components interacting in time. (A component can be a separate object (body), a structure and even a system, depending on the functional approach to the space.)

Time . is the form of being of matter (attribute) with the properties of the duration and sequence of state changes in space.

All the properties of space and time are inseparable, interrelated with material formations (bodies, objects, structures, systems) inside and between which some forms of motion are and are developing. There are generic, and also special properties of space and time.

Common Space Properties:

- objectivity;

- infinity;

- the relationship with time and movement;

- dependence on the structural characteristics of material systems;

- length;

- unity of discontinuity and continuity: discontinuity is relative to two (or several) interacting systems in space; continuity is absolute, because space has connectivity, there can not be discreteness in it.

Common time properties:

- objectivity;

- eternity;

- relationship with space and with motion;

- dependence on the structural characteristics of material systems;

is the unity of discontinuity and continuity: time does not have natural objective interruptions, it is comprehensive and flows even where spatial voids can be formed, so a coherent approach is typical for all processes and phenomena in time, since they are interconnected potentially and topically : past - present - future.

Special properties of space and time:

- for space - three-dimensionality (height-width-length), symmetry and asymmetry, shapes and sizes, location, distance between objects, distribution of matter, field and cosmic vacuum;

- for time - one-dimensionality, asymmetry, irreversibility, that is, the direction is always from past to future, the rhythm of processes, the rate of change of state, nonrepeatability, duration.

With respect to infinity, as a general property of space and time, an explanation is necessary. Since matter is absolute, uncreated and indestructible, it exists eternally, and eternity is the infinity of time, regardless of its intervals: from seconds to universal epochs, and it does not matter for which material systems. Therefore, any assumptions of the finiteness of time will inevitably lead either to the theological hypotheses about the creation of the world and time by God, or to the idealistic concepts of the universe.

From the theoretical principles of astrophysics and astronomy it follows that the spectral lines of the galaxies of the universe are shifted to the red side of the spectrum, and this shift is evidence of about their mutual distance from each other. This conclusion follows from the theory of the "Big Bang". The time of this event, which generates the life of the universe, is also determined - about 14 billion years. Appearing from the cosmic vacuum, a certain nebula exploded, representing a material substance, and its fragments began to fly off at a colossal speed in a synergetic vortex. From these fragments later began to form stars, followed by galaxies, which continued to move by inertia created by a substantial explosion, expanding the space of the universe. There are natural scientific reasons to believe that the alleged spatial expansion is not only an intragalactic process, but in the universe besides our Metagalaxy there are countless other space systems. From the philosophical point of view, this judgment is an objective fact, since in the material world, in its infinite space-time forms, there are the most diverse structural formations of matter with multidimensional elements, including social organization. But the classical question for the Universe and the Earth remains - but how does the natural material process in time and space continue to happen?

There are several options:

- the first - the movement that began as a result of the "Big Bang" will continue indefinitely;

- the second - the movement, starting at the time of the "Big Bang", will expand our universe to infinity, then there will come a slowdown and a stop. But the energy of matter (perhaps the energy of the cosmic vacuum, as a kind of matter) is no longer sufficient for compression and the Universe will "harden" - there will be only intra-universe processes; - the third - the speed of the galaxies will gradually slow down to a complete stop, and then they will move back to the point of their primary "cotton", where they disappear, disappearing into a cosmic vacuum, and with them the social matter on those planets where it existed. The next stage in the development of matter is a new Universal explosion. To clarify these options, we make a clarification: at the end of the XX century. scientists from a number of countries conducted a joint experiment within the program "Observation of extragalactic radiation from an aerostat and a study of geomagnetism". The conclusions of the scientific expedition turned out to be unique: our Universe is arranged so that the kinetic energy of its expansion and the potential energy of the substance in it are balanced. This means that it is flat and built according to the geometry of Euclid (III century BC), and not by B. Riemann (1826-1866) and N. Lobachevsky (1792-1856). Three very peculiar geometrically grounded points of view of thinkers-mathematicians predicted not only the possible form of the universe, they determined its fate in time and space. The experimental scientists came to the conclusion that if our Universe is built according to B. Riemann, like a ball, it should expand, reaching the maximum radius of curvature, then it will begin to contract and eventually collapse. According to the geometry of N. Lobachevsky (ellipse, curvilinear motion), the universe will expand indefinitely, and after some infinite time it will retain a certain speed. According to Euclid's geometry, the universe should also expand infinitely, but the expansion rate certainly falls until it becomes zero. Then the universe will stretch to infinity. The main thing here is that the expansion of the universe will never be replaced by compression, for this it simply does not have enough matter. It will develop in eternity. This is today the natural and philosophical answer to the problem of the existence of the universe and the existence of man in it.

Euclid (3rd century BC), Ancient Greek mathematician. He worked in Alexandria. The main work "Home (15 books) containing the foundations of ancient mathematics - in the plane, elementary geometry, number theory, general relational theory and the method of determining areas and volumes that included elements of the theory of limits.

Lobachevsky Nikolai Ivanovich (1792-1856 gg.), United States mathematician, creator of non-Euclidean geometry, works on algebra, mathematical analysis, probability theory, mechanics, physics and astronomy. Born November 20 (December 1) in 1792 in Nizhny Novgorod. He studied at the Kazan University. In 1811, Mr .. received a master's degree, in 1814 he became an adjunct, in 1816, an extraordinary, in 1822 an ordinary professor. He was in charge of the university library, was the curator of the museum, from 1827 to 1846, the rector of Kazan University. His mathematical discovery, proving that there is not one "true" geometry (1826), has not received scientific recognition. In 1832, while discussing the ideas of the "imaginary" in the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, (the term N. Lobachevsky, the concept of "non-Euclidean geometry" was later introduced into the scientific revolution by the German mathematician K. Gauss) of geometry, against it, as unattractive members of the academy, authoritative mathematicians N. Ostrogradsky and V. Bunyakovsky; sharp criticism of the discovery of Lobachevsky continued in the replicable journal of F. Bulgarin and ended with his removal in 1846 (in the totality of circumstances) from the post of university rector, the dismissal of a professor and other university positions. Only in the second half of the 19th century the discovery of N. Lobachevsky was appreciated by the scientific community, which enabled the overturning of Euclid's doctrine of the nature of space that existed for more than 2 thousand years . In 1993, the United States Academy of Sciences established a prize named after N.I. Lobachevsky. First name Lobachevsky was awarded to the Nizhny Novgorod State University.

Riemann Bernhard (1826-1866), German mathematician, who initiated the geometric direction in the theory of analytic functions. He considered geometry as a doctrine of continuous collections of any homogeneous objects (varieties). He introduced the so-called Riemannian spaces and developed their theory: along the circle, Riemannian geometry. He put forward a number of basic ideas of typology. We know our own works on algebraic functions, the analytic theory of differential equations, the distribution of prime numbers, trigonometric series, and integral theory. Riemannian geometry (1854) studies the properties of multidimensional spaces, in small regions of which Euclidean geometry takes place.

We also note that the study of the space-time characteristics of human existence, as well as of its natural factors, is the prerogative of not only philosophy, it is carried out by many sciences and applied disciplines. Another question is that philosophy in questions of space-time existence provides answers to universal human and natural problems, and private sciences are oriented toward the description and analysis of substantive problems. Let's turn to some of them:

- history - historical time is incomparable with physical time, since it has its own structure, in which subjects of history master time and space, organizing events and simultaneously experiencing them. Historical time is calculated by generations, centuries, epochs. Its special property is that for a point of reference certain social events are taken that have remained in the memory of generations and played an important role. The theory of historical compression of time with spatial dynamics and the results of its course for mankind is interesting: Antique times covered five millennia (conducting primitive economy); The Middle Ages already in one thousand years (development of crafts); The new time took only 300 years (a leap in the natural sciences, the formation of production); The newest time has kept within a hundred years, and there have been many events (appearance of super technologies, powerful social dynamics). Today, the story is literally going on before our eyes, many people simply do not have time to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions of life. Entire generations of people therefore do not understand each other, because they lived and live in fact in different and differently adapted historical periods of time;

- Political science is political time. It is a unique social phenomenon both in physical and in real power. In its formal manifestation, political time is the specific existence of peoples, nations, countries, states, commonwealths, unions where political dominance is exercised, political regimes operate, civil liberties are realized, where the political and legal mechanisms of institutional regulation have undergone lengthy adaptation. Politics, reflecting relations about power, becomes a real time when it meets social needs;

- sociology - social time. In social space we observe the acceleration of the rates of human development, the rates of socialization caused by social phenomena, and therefore more and more social phenomena are now being accommodated in the same unit of actual time: in the family, in the training group, in the professional team, in the state structure. Another question is when we evaluate a social phenomenon from a social point of view (institutionally, then one time) and from the personal point of view, when a person, an individual solves his personal problems (here the course of temporary processes is different - personified);

- Biology - Biological time. Living structures have special properties of space and time. Biological time is the time of life of organisms from protein to primates, that is, to humans. Biological time is the time when a living organism metabolizes, contributing to its vital functions. To prolong or shorten the life time of an organism is a multidimensional task. For man and the biomere, it is global. Both people and animals are constantly confronted with the problem of a possible reduction in the time of their functioning - an environmental threat. The technogenic process has embraced the whole of civilization, there are both technical plus social disadvantages, we will not discuss now, we note only for the human body only one fact - the curvature of the natural course of time when translated from the "summer" on winter mode of operation and back. In the course of such a violent temporary shift, a lot of people, especially the sick and the elderly, are really suffering, which the state that does not perceive biological time will never understand or support, and this is the level of social time at the junction with the political;

- psychology - psychological time. It is connected with the individual emotional emotions of a person. Tension, as it were, stretches time, and pleasure, joy is short-lived, they "condense" time. A person, acting in one way or another, acts in two ways, both rationally and emotionally. His own ego comes into contact with the subconscious It and under the influence of the social superego, which has a normative character, constitutes an individual psychological type of behavior, that is, the motivation of actions , taking into account the psychological time, can be quite diverse.

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