Specificity of globalization through the prism of anthropological...

The specifics of globalization through the prism of anthropological knowledge

The modern world, still remaining fragmented politically and culturally, is perceived in its deepest grounds as integral and global. Scientific studies of the processes of globalization are aimed primarily at analyzing the contradictory and ambiguous nature of the consequences caused by globalization, and often perceived as negative and destructive phenomena, destroying the cultural diversity of the world.

Basic approaches to understanding globalization.

A set of scientific approaches to the study of globalization dynamics can be reduced to three main positions.

The supporters of the first (Sh. Eisenstadt, P. Buchanan, the domestic culturologist L. Ya. Flier, etc.) believe that globalization is not only a modern phenomenon, but acts as the next stage in the cycle of increasing/lowering social diversity in cultural differentiation humanity. They believe that for the post-industrial development, the decline in diversity under the impact of globalization has become characteristic. However, the reverse trend of increasing entropy and deepening of cultural diversity is just around the corner.

Another concept (its supporters - S. Huntington, E. Toffler, W. Gunners, E. Luttwak) proceeds from the fact that the world is undergoing profound, qualitative changes caused, according to Huntington, by the prospect of a global clash of civilizations, according to Toffler, - a shock of the future, based on his misunderstanding, according to Gannsurs and Luttvak, - the ego is the clash of mankind with some unrecognized trend of future development, which can transform into a different form from the form of globalization.

The third position, held by a significant number of authoritative researchers, characterizes globalization as the political, economic and informational expansion of Western countries. Such expansion is aimed at the restoration of direct or indirect colonial domination over former countries of the Third World. .

At the same time, the spectrum of problems of globalization is often considered simplistic, and the cultural component of this process remains on the periphery of the examination. As a result, first of all, economic and social-structural changes are recorded that led to the formation of two autonomous worlds - the world of the "rich" and the world of "poor". So, in the study of W. Beck, the most complicated processes of interrelation between national cultures and interethnic interaction are considered only by the example of increasing the percentage of ethnically mixed marriages. Noting that in 1994 in Germany every fifth child "came from a mixed German-foreign or purely foreign marriage", he identifies the problem of groups of people "transcultural affiliation" and raises the question of where to relate them: "to us, to others, to what others?" . It emphasizes that globalization means the collision of local cultures, and introduces the term "collision of localities" .

In the book of G.-P. Martin and H. Schumann devoted only two paragraphs to the problems of cultural and ethnic development in the era of globalization. The authors consider the factors that led to the "Disney colonization of global culture" and state that "the logical end product in the field of culture would be a monotonous American" screech " but the whole world .

Primarily on the economic aspects of globalization, the Canadian researcher U. Elwood accepts the attention. The famous United States researcher MG Delyagin also defines globalization as "the process of formation and subsequent development of a single global financial and economic space on the basis of new, mostly computer technologies" .

Thus, often the situation with globalization is considered only in economic terms. A significant problem: the peculiarities of interaction of cultures - remains beyond the scope of consideration. However, to identify the anthropological aspects of globalization, this approach is insufficient.

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