Specificity of social laws, On the random in socio-historical...

Specificity of public laws

The very definition of the laws of history raises the question: are they analogous to the laws of nature or do they have their own specificity and, if so, what is it? Of course, there is something in common between these laws. And the others and all meet the characteristics of the concept of law, ie. reveal the necessary, essential in the phenomenon: as such, they act objectively. Specificity of the same social laws is as follows.

First, they arose together with the emergence of society and therefore are not eternal.

Secondly, as already noted, the laws of nature occur, while the laws of development of society are made, because they "must correspond to the physical properties of the country, its climate - cold, hot or moderate, soil quality, its position, size, way of life of its peoples - farmers, hunters or shepherds, the degree of freedom allowed by the state, the religion of the population, its inclinations, wealth, numbers, trade, customs and customs; finally, they are related to each other and are conditioned by the circumstances of their origin, the goals of the legislator, the order of things on which they are asserted. "

Third, this shows their more complex character, associated with a high level of organization of society as a form of the movement of reality. The world of intelligent beings is not managed with such perfection and with such precision as the physical world: although it has its own specific laws, it does not follow them with the rigor with which the physical world follows its laws. The reason for this is that some intelligent beings, possessing freedom of will and self-will, may be mistaken and therefore may not observe, violate (freely or unwillingly) the laws of society. A consequence of a violation, for example, of economic laws may be a state of devastation and chaos. In the history of mankind, there are many examples of political adventurism, which is always in a screaming contradiction with the objective laws of history.

Fourthly, the historian deals with what has already happened, and can not know how many real opportunities are missed. It seems to him that if this event happened, then it is a natural one. He is inclined to deny what happened in accident. In the physical world, nature is the law that is constantly repeated. In history, everything is unique, there are no repetitions, as in life: every moment is new, unprecedented and peculiar. Each of them sets new tasks, and therefore requires new answers. Fifth, in the life and development of society, statistical laws have a much greater specific gravity and place: in historical events, much is subject to randomness.

History never repeats itself: it moves not in circles, but in a spiral, and the apparent repetitions in it always differ from each other, carrying in themselves something new. But in this unique individuality and randomness of concrete events there is always something in common; for example, the fact that the Second World War does not resemble the Napoleonic wars is not an obstacle to a philosophical understanding of the nature of wars in general. Individual in history is a concrete form of detection essentially similar. But in the public life, in history, the uniqueness, the uniqueness of events, acquires the greatest completeness. The general here does not level the single, as if depersonalizing it, but, on the contrary, it can be carried out only under the condition of the greatest completeness of the manifestation of the unique, acting not as dynamic laws of nature (for example, the law of gravitation), but as statistical, as a tendency allowing deviations away from the main line of world history. At the same time, the social law is not just a trend (which itself may turn out to be random, transitory), but as a leading, basic trend.

About random in socio-historical processes

Individual historical events in all the richness of their concreteness, randomness never really repeat. Accident, as already mentioned, plays a big role in the historical process and in the life of society. In the history of society, to a greater extent than in nature, the case operates: after all, people's activities are prompted not only by their ideas and will, but also by passions and even by addictions. However, the randomness of chance is different even in history. On the one hand, randomness appears as a more or less adequate form of manifestation, necessity. Here, randomness, as if mutually "quenching", contribute to the discovery of a certain pattern. A randomness of another type, being for the historical process something stranger, invading it as if from outside, can make serious and sometimes fatal adjustments to it.

Society in its development passes qualitatively certain stages. On each of them, there are also general laws that characterize the repeating, stable in history, and specific, manifested only in a limited historical time and space. General and specific laws are interrelated and should be studied in unity, as the latter characterize the qualitative certainty of each socio-economic formation, showing its historically transitory, volatile nature. General laws form an invisible thread, which connects all stages of the development of mankind into a single whole.

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