Sphere Theory F.Frebel - History, Philosophy and Methodology...

Sphere F.Frebel's theory

Friedrich Fröbel, as he himself noted, realized his pedagogical vocation through familiarity with the theory of Pestalozzi, at whose school he worked for three years. The original thinker, Fröbel, devoted his entire conscious life to the development of a theory, the key moments of which are of primary interest.

Fröbel was guided by the paradigm that implied the transition: religion → philosophy sciences pedagogy. Of course, each of these components was specified in a certain way. In view of this circumstance, the above transition can be presented in the following form: Protestantism → Schelling's philosophy nature sciences first pedagogy of family education. All stages of this transition deserve special comment.

Protestantism was opposed to Catholicism, it was characterized by the concepts of freedom and active labor. Creativity Frobel caused vigorous opposition from the Catholic Orthodox.

The liberalism of Fröbel brings him closer to the philosophy of Fichte, the most violent adept of the ideal of civil freedom. Listening to his lectures, Fröbel certainly improved his philosophical training. But the ideal for him was the pantheistic philosophy of Frederick Schelling, according to which the world, being the result of the free creation of God, acts in all its parts as its own symbol. The objective coincides with the subjective; with God. But man, Fröbel repeated after his philosophical teacher, in one respect is radically different from all other beings: he is able to understand those laws in which the freedom of God is embodied. And for this, science is necessary, without which genuine education is impossible. Although Fröbel advocated a comprehensive education that takes into account the achievements of literally all sciences, his sympathies were clearly on the side of mathematics and natural science, in his opinion, expressing the divine plan in a more direct form than social sciences, partly distorted by the arbitrariness of people.

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The philosophical component in the pedagogical paradigm of Fröbel, in particular, in his main work "On the education of man" (1826) is unrecoverable. Therefore, it would be necessary to determine its name. Schelling's philosophy is often called the philosophy of identity (read: God and nature - VK) or objective idealism. With this in mind, the concept of Fröbel can be considered a pedagogical theory of identity. With less reason, it can be called a pantheistic theory, which goes back to the specifics of the doctrine not so much Schelling as Spinoza. It is hardly possible to characterize Fröbel's theory as objective-idealistic: objective idealism is most characteristic of Hegel, and Fröbel was a Schellingian. Given the name of his theory, it is worth using Fröbel's own terminology. He often called the universe a sphere. His theory of the sphere, in fact, combined philosophical and pedagogical ideas. In this regard, his theory is preferably called the "sphere."

Pedagogical theory Frobel initially resembled the theory of Pestalozzi (should fully develop the ability of man, his heart, head and hand). But Fröbel was more scientifically prepared than Pestalozzi. As for the practical activities of children, he put it not so high as Pestalozzi. In accordance with his original philosophical and pedagogical ideas, Fröbel paid special attention to the desimization of the world. If the world is a symbol of God, then it is necessary to show those forms in which a person recognizes this circumstance. And it should be done in the pedagogical style. If Frobel succeeded in achieving success, then it must be assumed that the fundamental uniqueness of his theory would have become apparent to all. But this did not happen, and the researcher remained in the shadow of Pestalozzi's authority.

Decisive changes came after 1835, full of enthusiasm, Fröbel announced a new idea. This time, he decided that the space for the universal he wanted, or, as he put it, spherical education, opens up upbringing in the family, i.e. in an organization that is least dependent on intrusive control of the state. The form of education is a game. The fact is that according to Frobel's observations, the main activity of ideas is play. Therefore, it should be the form of education. Do not impose on children alien forms of occupation, for example, make them work in the same manner as adults.

But the game of the game is different. For Fröbel, it was obvious that the game should have a learning character. In this regard, he created a unique handout: colorful balls, cubes, cylinders, operating with which, it was possible to teach children of the age of three to six years the basics of various subjects, in particular, to teach them to count and write, to talk about the structure of the world. The play of children is precisely the form in which desimvolation of the divine anomalous universe, the Frobelian sphere occurs. Cognition acquires such special features, which are absent, for example, in the theory of Pestalozzi. It was the concept of the teaching game that brought Froebel world fame, which, however, came after his death. He became the leitmotif of the semantic organization of kindergartens in many countries of the world, including Russia. The term kindergarten invented Fröbel, instructing the kids to take care of the plants. The orphanage became a place of courtship for children, i.e. a kindergarten. It should be noted that originally Fröbel attributed the concept of the pedagogical game exclusively to family education. Part of the unexpected for him, he was extended to kindergartens.

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Conclusions

1. According to Fröbel, children carry out the de-divineization of the divine cosmic world ( spheres ) differently than the adults, namely through the game.

2. The concept of the game is given didactic importance.

3. Sphere Fröbel is not a scientific, but a pantheistic concept.

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