For the Stoics, logic was a very broad field of knowledge, including only the analysis of syllogisms, but also rhetoric, grammar, theory of concepts, epistemology and the philosophy of language. Logic deals with two parts of knowledge: rhetoric as a doctrine of speech and dialectic as a way of clashing opinions and clarifying the truth through questions and answers. Stoic dialectics can be conditionally divided into propositional logic (or formal logic), theory of categories and proper dialectics . It was the Stoics who first gave this area of knowledge the name "logic", replacing it with the Aristotelian "analyst". Stoic dialectics was used to discover causal connections and to resolve philosophical paradoxes that violated the notion of the world as a well-organized, ordered whole. The main question of logic is the structure of our knowledge - how and why we know the world. The knowledge of the world and of one's own place in this world is the most important task of Stoic philosophy, and logic is the instrument that allows to solve this problem.
The creator of formal logic can be called Chrysippus - he studied all kinds of statements and reduced them to five simplest modes, or "unprovable" syllogisms that are formulated in the form of inference rules, and also presented a general outline of these syllogisms, or logos, which includes two premises and a conclusion: "If the first, then the second - but the first - hence the second". (If there is smoke, then there is fire, and as we see smoke, therefore, something is burning.)
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The five syllogisms of Chrysippus look like this:
1) if p, then q; but p; therefore, q;
2) if p, then q; but not q; therefore, not p;
3) not (p and q); but p; therefore, not q;
4) either p or q; but p; therefore, not q;
5) either p or q; but not p; consequently, q.
According to the stoic logic, the argument is valid if it can be reduced to one of the five specified syllogisms.
Formal logic, according to the Stoics, establishes a logical relationship between the meanings, which reflects the causal relationship in the physical world.
Doctrine of the "comprehending view".
If dialectics is used to arrive at the truth about a rationally ordered world, then we must have access to basic information about this world. The source of such information is sense perception. Stoics believed that in sensory perception we get true knowledge about the world (if the feelings are in a healthy state). The cognitive act begins with the impressions , which, being imprinted in the soul by sensory perception, is saved as representation ( phantasia ). Thus, the impression of a peset in itself is certain information about an external object, and this information is stored as a non-body judgment, or lecton ( lekton ).
This impression and information content can be stored in memory, and also forms our basic knowledge of the world. Evaluation of incoming information depends on us: we can regard perceived as false, for example, if we look at an oak reflected in water, it is in our power to consider it only a reflection, not a genuine object. But this ability to choose which impressions to take for truth, and which are not, is impossible if we do not have criteria choice. According to the Stoics, criteria are a special part of the impression, which is called comprehending. Comprehension occurs when the content of the impression that is imprinted in the soul is verified (verified) in the intellectual act of agreement with the perceived. The idea of the object that arises as a result of an act of agreement with the perceived, the Stoics called the attaining view (phantasia kataleptike). The comprehending representation is intended to represent the world as it really is; it makes it possible to distinguish truth and becomes the yardstick of the truth of what is available to us in perception, therefore it is a necessary step to knowledge of the world. Stoics believe that the comprehending representation confirms itself, that is, if the knowledge of the world is based on such representations, it can not be mistaken.
Nevertheless, the Stoics do not believe that only comprehending representations can make up knowledge. Real knowledge requires a reliable, strong and unchanging cognitive ability of the mind, as well as inclusion in a systematic whole together with other knowledge.
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