Stoicism - Philosophy


Stoicism (from the Greek stoa - portico [gallery with columns in Athens, where Zeno taught, the founder of stoicism]) as a specific direction of philosophical thought existed from the III century. BC. before the III century. AD Stoicism is the least Greek from all philosophical schools. The early Stoics, most of them Syrians: Zeno of Kition from Cyprus, Cleanthes, Chrysippus. Their works have survived only in separate fragments, so a thorough understanding of their views is significantly hampered. The later Stoics (1st and 2nd century) include Plutarch, Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius - mostly Romans. Their works have reached us in the form of complete books. Even with one word "stoic," according to AF Losev, there arises the notion of a wise man who is very courageous to endure all the adversity of life and remains calm despite all the troubles and misfortunes they are experiencing. Indeed, the Stoics in their views, undoubtedly, highlighted the notion of a calm and always balanced, even "insensitive" wise man. This manifested the ideal of inner freedom, freedom from passion, which was cherished by almost all Stoics.

According to Chrysippus of Sol (circa 280-208 BC), there is a "world soul" - the purest ether, the most mobile and light, feminine-tender, as it were, the subtlest kind of matter.

A representative of late Stoicism Marcus Aurelius of the Antonin dynasty (121-180, Roman emperor from 161 AD) was convinced that God gives each person a special kind genius for leaders. (This idea was revived in Christianity in the guise of a guardian angel.) For him, the Universe is a closely related whole; it is a single, living being, possessing one substance and one soul. " Here are some of the aphorisms of Marcus Aurelius: "Think often about the connection of all things in the world, and their relationship", "Whatever happens to you - it has been predetermined to you from the century. And the intertwining of causes from the very beginning has connected your existence with this event. " And more: "Love humanity." Follow God ... And that's enough to remember that the Law rules everything. "

Characterizing various properties of the soul, the Stoics paid special attention to the phenomenon of will; the doctrine was built on the will-power principle, on self-control, patience, etc. They were eager for complete self-reification (in our view, the stoic sage is a man who has powerful and unswerving willpower). They also interpreted the development of nature in a religious spirit, believing that everything is predetermined. God is not separate from the world, he is the soul of the world, beneficent providence. Stoics proceeded from the principle of universal expediency. Everything has its meaning: even bedbugs are useful, because they help to wake up in the morning and do not lie too long in bed.

For the famous thinker, writer and statesman Lucius Seneca (circa 4 BC - 65 AD), freedom is a deity that dominates all things and events. Nothing can change it. Hence the resignation, endurance and persistent transfer of vital adversities. The Stoic sage does not resist evil: he understands it and stays firmly in its semantic fluidity, so he is unperturbed and calm. It is not for nothing that during the whole history of Stoicism Socrates was the chief deity of the Stoics; his conduct during the trial of him, the refusal to flee, the calm in the face of death, the assertion that injustice does more harm to the one who performs it than the victim - all this fully corresponded to the teachings of the Stoics.

Early Stoics in their ideas of being followed the ancient tradition. They proceeded from the fact that the body of the world is formed from fire, air, earth and water. The soul of the world is a fiery and airy pneuma (Greek - breath, breath, spirit). All being was conceived only as a different degree of tension of the divinely-material. According to the Stoics doctrine of the fire element of the essence of the world, this fire turns into all other elements according to the law, which after Heraclitus was called the Logos. In the writings of the Stoics, a lot of reasoning about the Stoic Logos, which was understood as something objective in its merged unity with the material elements of everything.

The Logos of the world in the Stoics was identified with fate. According to them, fate is the Logos of the Cosmos, which regulates everything in the world. The founder of stoicism Zeno from Keaton (332-262 BC) said that fate is the power that moves matter. He defined God as the fiery mind of the world: God fills the whole world, like honey stuffed with honeycombs; he is the supreme head, ruling all things. According to Zeno, God, Mind, Destiny are the same (therefore the Stoics believed in astrology and predictions).

Stoikov was interested not so much in the mysteries of the Cosmos as in the elements of expression and expressiveness. Given in general a very rough cosmology, they, according to AF Losev, turned out to be very thin philologists and connoisseurs of expressive forms of consciousness, and dialectics was understood by them in close connection with rhetoric, the art of conducting a conversation (with this content, dialectics also entered medieval thinking).

In the Stoics, we find numerous and subtly developed logical and grammatical inquiries: the origins of grammar are precisely in the Stoic school. From their point of view, the actual philosophical principle is rooted in the human subject, but this was not actually subjectivism. Stoics used the term lecton . It denotes the thing that we mean when we use its designation. It is known that language (its vocabulary and grammar, syntax, semantics, etc.) is subjective. But in words we denote objects, their connections and relations. Therefore, what we designate, or rather, what we mean by designating objects, is neither subjective nor objective. When it corresponds to reality, it is objective and even true, but it can also be false. The Stoics, according to Losev, make quite a correct conclusion, namely, that lecton, when we use it in the designation or naming of an object, can be both true and false; he is higher than truth and lie. According to Plotinus, Stoic lecton is only a thought construct associated with the word, but does not have a causal-metaphysical existence. Lecton is pure sense. Stoics proceeded from the distinction of verbal sounding and the assertion contained in it, from which the later stoic distinction of the "sounding word" and verbal objectness & quot ;, or meaning (lecton), so that the term lecton means the theory of the symbol.

Aristotle said about the division of philosophy into logic, physics and ethics, nevertheless in Stoics this division was finally recognized, so these three philosophical disciplines were separated and the logic became an independent discipline.

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