Structure of didactic discourse and its levels
In the group of students, informal subgroups always arise. Of course, the teacher must take this circumstance into account. This will allow him to give focus to his activities, and in some cases to economize efforts. It is not always necessary to take into account the peculiarities of each student. For this, sometimes just not enough study time. Sometimes it is quite permissible to limit oneself to the specificity of subgroups, in particular their sexual and age characteristics or, for example, the level of understanding of the educational material. In this regard, the reader's attention is offered several concepts that allow us to comprehend the structure of discourse, which is determined by the peculiarities of the subgroups.
1. The concept of six thinking hats by E. de Bono. The basic position of this concept is that thinking can be divided into six styles (hats): white (neutrality and objectivity), red (emotion), black (negative judgments), yellow (positive judgments), green (creative thinking), blue (reflection on the arguments). In our opinion, it would be reasonable to add to the six styles of thinking the seventh - metascientific. The leader of the group should strive for the ideals of the meta-hat. The very presence of different types of thinking allows him to productively combine their capabilities. In certain specific situations, the importance of certain styles of thinking increases.
The strength of the concept of six thinking hats is to highlight certain stylistic characteristics of the group members. Opens the opportunity to enrich the thinking style of each member of the subgroup. But, unfortunately, de Bono did not notice that all the styles of thinking indicated to him in conceptual terms are of secondary importance. The process of inference really depends on a person's mental characteristics, but not as clearly and completely as it is considered in the concept under consideration. Of decisive importance are the scientific theories, which are personified by the participants of this or that discourse.
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2. Role theory of group members. This theory was developed by M. Belbin. His main idea is that you can not equate the mental type with the role of people in the group. Being in the group, a person is transformed in a certain way. Each member of the group plays a certain role within the framework of three clusters of behavior: 1) role oriented actions are characteristic for performers; 2) roles, people-oriented, are peculiar to managers, coordinators, team players; 3) the role of the mental orientation is inherent in the generators of ideas, experts and specialists. The account of role predispositions of group members allows successfully to coordinate and supervise its activity.
Of course, the role theory of the members of the group has, among other things, pedagogical significance. Trainees demonstrate different ways of behavior. Some tend to be leaders, others prefer to stay in the middle peasants. In addition, the members of the group adopt many things from each other. All this leads to the isolation of certain types of behavior. It is on their basis that certain subgroups are formed. The group is never a chaotic whole, it certainly has a certain structure. The teacher is involved, voluntarily or unwittingly, in the formation and subsequent modification of subgroups. Often he distinguishes subgroups according to the degree of their members' academic performance, singling out, for example, "excellent students", "goodies", "middle peasants" and twins & quot ;. It is necessary to keep in mind the degree of inertia of the members of the subgroup. It is incredibly difficult for them to overcome the barriers of the subgroup, to abandon the stereotypes of behavior characteristic of it. The teacher should not be encouraged to transform the structure of the group into an ossified whole. He is interested in a kind of pedagogical mobility elevator that allows members of a selected subgroup to be transferred to a higher level. Thus, the teacher, on the one hand, is forced to participate in the formation of the structure of the group, and on the other - constantly modify it.
3. The theory of victims of the group decision was developed by I. Janis. We are talking about the shortcomings of group thinking, striving to maintain the stability of the group for the benefit of its leaders or in accordance with falsely understood stereotypes of behavior and their value evaluation. Criticism is allowed only in certain limits, it is not allowed to question the principles around which the group has rallied. Negative consequences of group thinking is the cult of leaders, negative attitude towards creativity, lack of self-criticism. Prevention of group thinking involves conscious use of the critical method. In this case, the criticism "from below" is encouraged, the dominant role of leaders is deliberately limited, the group is divided into subgroups, the group "fresh heads" is invited.
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The theory of victims of group thinking has a direct relationship to pedagogy. But, of course, in this area there are special features. First of all, it is necessary to determine the role of the teacher. After all, he should be the leader of the group, who does not allow worship of his own, as well as of other members of the group. From this fate it can save only creativity, an inescapable desire to succeed in its activities. Group thinking can not be avoided in any case. It is important to direct it to the appropriate channel.
4. The silent theory. In the concept of silence, E. Noel-Neumann tries to explain the behavior of people who are not inclined to express their opinion. Silence is especially characteristic of those people who, because of fear of isolation and condemnation, do not take the liberty to express ideas that are not consistent with the prevailing opinion - social, group, and even individual personalities, usually formal or informal leaders. If the teacher does not pay due attention to the silent, they begin to fall out of group thinking, which, of course, is unacceptable. Silent people should be instructed to make reports and reports, appoint them responsible for certain areas of work. They must be extracted from the spiral of silence. It is extremely important for a teacher to understand that the assimilation of scientific theories necessarily involves group thinking. Before him is the task not only to learn the best examples of group thinking, but also to teach them their pupils, including the silent.
Multilevel educational text. Imagine yourself as the author of a textbook or a study guide. Obviously, you must take into account the characteristics of the readers. But their educational level is different. If you focus on the strong & quot ;, then you risk being misunderstood weak & quot ;. If we focus on the "weak", then perhaps the study monograph will not be of interest to the "strong". At first glance, it is not entirely clear how to overcome this conflict. In our pedagogical activity, we have repeatedly encountered it, to a certain extent, having learned, as it seems to us, to successfully overcome it.
Being the author of textbooks on philosophy for 1) graduate students, 2) undergraduates, 3) bachelors, 4) students in secondary special educational institutions, we have always taken into account the specifics of the readership. Soon, to our surprise, we learned that sometimes graduate students use a textbook written for students of secondary special educational institutions when preparing for the Ph.D. It is simpler than other textbooks, but nevertheless expresses the basic content of modern philosophy. This pedagogical incident led us to the following conclusion. First, it is always necessary to focus on the main content of the theory. It is this that proves the basis for mutual understanding of all trainees, regardless of the degree of their preparedness. Of course, the text of the text contains fragments that can not be comprehended by the weak students, but they (and this - secondly) mostly refer to particulars. For all their refinement, these fragments continue the basic line of reasoning. Having shown a proper degree of perseverance, each student can understand them. Thus, with the correct organization of the training text, the antagonism between the weak and strong does not arise. The essence of the matter, which they are engaged in, is the same. It is of interest to all groups of students. As for the complexities of the training courses, the weak always have the opportunity in their understanding to join the "strong".
1. One of the tasks of the teacher is the management of the didactic discourse, in particular, consideration of the distinctiveness of its participants.
2. He needs to establish the student's thinking style, his belonging to the informal discursive subgroup. It is often useful to cultivate a special type of group mobility of students, trying to teach them to work in different modes.
3. Any text should be written in such a way that it interests the reader, regardless of the degree of preparation.
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