Subjects of Political Processes
As already mentioned, political processes are carried out by the efforts of certain actors through their political activities, in which they seek to fulfill their political needs and realize their political interests. Their political needs express the need to show their political will to assert their position in the system of political relations of a given society. At the same time, in their political interests, optimal ways of meeting their political needs are recorded, whether it is an acute political struggle against the opposing actors for the sake of achieving their political domination or the achievement of certain agreements with them on the basis of mutual concessions (political compromise) . Thus, in the political needs of the subjects of political processes, the relations of the need for one or another political activity are fixed, and in their political interests - the relationship of the political expediency of such activity.
It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts "subject of political process" and political process participant & quot ;.
In a variety of political processes taking place in a particular country or in the world, many people are directly or indirectly included. All of them are participants of these political processes. However, their subjects they become only to the extent that they act consciously, i.e. realize the content and social orientation of these political processes, their place and role in them, consciously realize their needs and interests in them.
As the subjects of political processes, most often the classes that are aware of their political needs and interests and the political parties acting on their behalf act as well as nations, various political elites and individuals. The main subjects of political processes in a class society are those or other classes, each of which has its own political interests and tries to implement them. These interests express their attitude towards the existing political system and state power.
Some try to consolidate the state power won by them, others try to win it, others want to share this power with other actors. All of them seek to use state power to realize their political, economic and other interests.
On behalf of classes and other social groups, various political parties are not as numerous as classes, and are therefore more mobile and flexible in their political activities. In addition, they are more organized and guided by appropriate ideological guidelines.
In this case, several political parties can act from one class, each of which reflects its class interests in its own way and tries to implement them in its own way.
Political parties are the most active, organized and purposeful subjects of political processes. However, their independence should not be overestimated. In any case, they express the interests of certain classes and other social groups.
However, in the cases of bureaucratization of a political party and its transformation into a closed corporation, which is now quite common, the orientation of its activities can significantly change. There is its separation from its class and wider sections of society, and the party begins to work only for its own interests. This was rightly pointed out in his time by M. Weber, who wrote that a political party can become an organization whose goal is to gain power for its leaders and posts for the apparatus.Important subjects of political processes are nations, when they try to realize their national political interests (winning or defending national independence and independence, strengthening their national state and other political institutions). Ultimately, the interests of the nation are aimed at their approval in the system of existing interethnic relations in a given country or on the international arena.
Specific subjects of political processes are political elites (from the elite - the most capable and therefore "selected" groups of society). These are groups of the most capable politicians who win the right to lead and manage the activities of political institutions. At the same time, the methods of leadership and management of political institutions and processes that they apply in many respects correspond to the basic qualities of the elites themselves: their level of education, political culture, organizational abilities, and their ideological and political attitudes.
Finally, subjects of political processes can be individuals, if they understand the essence of these processes and consciously participate in them. They can strive to realize their political interests as the interests of representatives of certain classes, political parties, nations, political elites, as well as their personal interests, including those related to the exercise of their civil rights and freedoms.
A special role in political processes is played by so-called political leaders expressing the political interests of nations, classes and other social groups more deeply and vividly, having the ability to influence the consciousness of large numbers of people, organizing them to achieve social significant goals, in this case political.
Thus, the concept of "subject of the political process" plays an essential role in the study of the content of the political life of society, the political processes taking place in it and their driving forces.
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