System analysis of socio-economic and political processes
The essence of system analysis. System analysis, or a systematic approach to the study of a phenomenon, also refers to general scientific methods of research. It involves the consideration of any phenomenon studied as a certain system of its constituent elements and interacting elements. This approach is manifested as the corresponding method of scientific thinking, consisting primarily of fixing the basic elements the phenomenon or process being studied and to investigate their interactions.
At the same time, proceed from the fact that in the interaction of the elements of a system as an integral phenomenon, its new properties arise, which are absent from its elements and called emergent (from English, emergence - appearance). The phenomenon of emergence itself expresses the irreducibility of the properties of the system to the properties of its elements.
From what has been said, it follows that any system is an internally dissociated structural integrity. The structure of a system is a set of direct and inverse connections of its elements, therefore the study of any social system is aimed at studying the interrelationships and interdependencies of its elements.
The structure of economic and political processes as dynamically functioning systems expresses the degree of orderliness and organization of their elements, the mechanisms of their interaction. The integrity of of the system is, on the one hand, the stable interaction of its main elements, and on the other - in its relative self-sufficiency, the ability to reproduce its properties, as well as in the presence of an internal source development.
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At the same time, any system functions and develops in close interaction with other systems.
For example, any modern economic system is affected to some extent by other economic systems, as well as by various political, legal and spiritual factors of public life. This is rightly pointed out by representatives of such areas of modern economic science as marginalism, institutionalism, etc. The same can be said about the impact on the functioning of political systems of various phenomena of the economic, social and spiritual spheres of society.>
The logical foundations of system analysis
System analysis, representing a certain way of scientific thinking, has the logical foundations: understanding the system (what it represents), scientific understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the functioning of systems, taking into account their diversity and highlighting their individual species, scientific knowledge of evolution systems, etc. At the same time, the system thinking itself, manifested in the course of system analysis, is based on the use of such general scientific methods of cognition as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, analogy, modeling, etc.
Of course, the logical foundations of system analysis include the system of concepts, within which the essence, content, functioning and development of systems are comprehended. The central concept here is the concept of "system", with which the concepts "element", "relationship", "attitude", "structure", "function", "organization", "management" are related. and others
The understanding of the principles of system research, is the most important of these - fixing the integrity of the system being studied. Units of the system recognize its elements, properties and functions are determined by their place in the given system. In turn, one or another element of the system "can itself be considered as something complex - for example, as a subsystem ... But a system as a whole can usually be considered as a subsystem of a wider system".
Elements of the system, being among themselves in all sorts of direct and feedback and relations (spatial, temporal, functional, cause-effect, etc.), form the structural integrity of the system. Hence the conclusion: in order to study the system, it is necessary to study the properties of its elements and their interrelations, which are determined to a decisive degree by the character of the system itself.
The following logical principle of system research is the identification of sources of development of the system under study (internal and external), which, in particular, involves studying the mechanism of reproduction of this system, its structure and functions, as well as the mechanism of its development, appearance of new properties and appropriate ways of adaptation to the external environment - natural and social.
These and other logical principles of systematic research are methodological in nature, because they express theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of systems and directions for their further study. Therefore, the logical foundations of system analysis can be characterized and as methodological principles of systems analysis.
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Finally, an important logical basis and at the same time the methodological principle of system analysis is accounting for the diversity of systems , including social ones, the allocation of their main species for different reasons. In modern science the following types of systems are distinguished:
• material and ideal, ie. system of phenomena and processes of the material world (natural and social) and the system of knowledge about them;
• open and closed: first open to interact with the external environment, exchange material, energy and information with it; in the second, this does not happen. Note, however, that there are no completely isolated systems from the outside world: there are only "partially closed systems";
• deterministic and stochastic systems, the former function on the basis of stable cause-effect and legitimate relationships; second - "are governed by the laws of the case", which predetermine the appearance of a particular event "only depending on its belonging to a particular stochastic collective with some degree of probability";
• teleological, or purposeful, and non-directional: the first is the "expedient actions of living systems" and purposeful actions of social collectives & quot ;; Second "do not have a strict orientation" and act more in inorganic nature. "
There are also simple and complex systems. In simple systems, a small number of elements interact, but their relationships are "well organized and manageable," they are almost independent of environment, are deterministic and change little in time & quot ;; in complex systems, many elements interact, between
which there are numerous connections of various kinds. The behavior of complex systems is more subject to random factors. Their subsystems can have their own goals, not always and not in all coinciding with the goals of the system as a whole. "
The logical foundations of system analysis are clearly expressed in the basic principles of the so-called cognitive approach to the study of social phenomena that take into account the factors of social and individual consciousness. It is about the degree of awareness, understanding by the subjects (individuals, social groups, etc.) of the essence, content, directions of development of various social systems, of which they are elements, or systems external to them and the meanings of these systems for development society, social groups, etc.
The considered logical foundations of system analysis are the starting points of research of various social processes, including socio-economic and political, and in many ways determine the content and direction of these studies.
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