T. Campanella. City of the Sun - Reader in Philosophy

T. Campanella. City of the Sun

CAMPANELLA Tommaso (1568-1639) is a representative of Italian natural philosophy, but his social teaching played a more significant role. Campanella rejected the Protestant Reformation, proclaimed the idea of ​​the power of the pope over all Christians, defended the unity of church and secular power.

The essence stated in the famous utopian work of Campanella, "The City of the Sun", is: the device of the Sun City is a theocratic system, headed by a priest, the first confessor. His assistants are Power, Wisdom and Love, who deal with issues of war and peace, birth control, military craft, arts, sciences, school education, medicine, agriculture and cattle breeding. In this work Campanella political, secular power is intertwined with the church, the spiritual.

Major works: "Sun City", "About the Christian Monarchy", "About the Church Authority" and others

[INTERVIEWERS: Chief Hotel and Seafarer from Genoa]

Hotel: Tell me, how is this city organized and what is its image of government?

Navy: In the vast plain there is a tall hill, on which most of the city is located; Numerous its outskirts go far beyond the foot of the mountain, the size of which is such that the city has a diameter of over two miles, and its circumference is seven. Due to the fact that it lies on the hill of the hill, its area is larger than if it were on a plain. The city is divided into seven vast belts, or circles, called on the seven planets. From one circle to another fall through four cobbled streets through four gates, facing the four corners of the world. And the city so, rightly, is built, that if the first round was taken, then to take the second it would take twice as much effort; and to master the third, even more. So, in order to capture each of the following, one would have to constantly use twice as much effort and labor.

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So, if someone had planned to take this city by storm, he would have had to take it seven times. But, in my opinion, it is impossible to take the first circle: the surrounding earthen wall is so wide and it is fortified with bastions, towers, bombards and moats.

So, having entered the northern gates (which are bound with iron and so made that they can easily rise and fall and lock themselves tightly thanks to the surprisingly clever arrangement of their projections, fitted for movement in the recesses of strong jambs), I saw an even space of seventy paces wide first and second row of walls. From there you can see the vast chambers connected to the wall of the second circle so that they can be said to constitute one whole building. At half height of these chambers there are solid arches, on which there are galleries for walks and which are supported from below by beautiful thick pillars encircling arcades like colonnades or monastic crossings. From below the entrances to these buildings are only from the inner, concave side of the wall; in the lower floors enter directly from the street, and into the upper ones by marble staircases leading into similar inner galleries, and from them into the beautiful upper chambers with windows both on the inner and outer side of the wall and separated by light partitions. The thickness of the convex, that is, the outer wall - eight inches, the concave - three, and the intermediate - from one to one and a half spans. From here you can go to the next pass between the walls, a step to three already the first, from which you can see the first wall of the next circle with similar galleries at the top and bottom; and on the inner side there is another wall encircling the chambers, with the same protrusions and transitions, supported from below by columns; above, where there are doors to the upper chambers, it is painted with magnificent painting.

Thus, on similar circles and through double walls, inside which there are chambers with outwardly appearing galleries on the columns, you reach the very last circle, walking all the time on an even place; However, when passing through double gates (in external and internal walls) it is necessary to climb the steps, but arranged so that the rise is almost invisible: you go along them obliquely, and the height of the stairs is therefore barely perceptible. On the top of the mountain there is an open and spacious square, in the middle of which stands a temple erected with amazing art.

The supreme ruler they have - a priest named in their language "Sun", on our own we would call him Metaphysician. He is the head of all and in secular and spiritual, and on all issues and disputes he makes the final decision. With him there are three co-rulers: Pont, Sin and Mor, or in our way: Power, Wisdom and Love.

All peers call each other brothers; those who are twenty-two years older than them, call them fathers, and those who are twenty-two years younger, sons. And officials carefully monitor that no one has inflicted another offense on this brotherhood.

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