T. Jefferson. Notes on religion, B. Franklin. The...

T. Jefferson. Notes on religion

JEFFERSON Thomas (1743-1826) - American statesman, politician, ideologue of democratic direction, one of the authors of the draft Declaration of Independence of the USA and the founders of the US state, the third US president, diplomat, Enlightenment philosopher.

Notes on Locke and Shaftesbury

Locke rejects tolerance for those who hold views contrary to the moral standards necessary for the preservation of society. Those who, for example, believe that faith should not be supported by people of other convictions; that kings who are excommunicated lose their crowns, that power is based on the mercy of [God] that must obey some foreign ruler; or those who do not have tolerance and do not teach all people the duty of tolerance and in matters of religion, who reject the existence of God. It would be a great thing to go so far (as he [Locke] himself says about the parliament that developed the act of tolerance), but if Locke has stopped on this, we can continue.

He declares that "neither a pagan, nor a Mohammedan, nor a Jew should be deprived of civil rights because of his religion." Should we allow the pagan to communicate with us and not allow him to pray to his god? Why do Christians differ from all the peoples that ever existed in that they practiced persecution? Is it because this is the spirit of their religion? No, their spirit is the opposite. It is the refusal of tolerance to those who hold different views, created all religious strife and war. The misfortune of mankind was that in the dark ages, the Christian priests, following their ambition and greed and united with the civil authorities to share the looted folk goods, could create the view that it was permissible to take away their property from the heretics and destroy them. We ourselves have not yet freed ourselves from these views. It is therefore not surprising that the oppressed rise up: they will raise uprisings and continue unrest until their civil rights are fully restored to them and all private differences, exceptions and improbabilities are eliminated.

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B. Franklin. The future of science. About Christian morality

FRANKLIN Benjamin (1706-1790) - statesman and political figure of the United States, educator, diplomat, scientist, journalist, one of the founding fathers of the United States. He became the only one whose signature was under all three historical documents directly related to the formation of a sovereign state (the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1783).

Franklin was the first citizen of his country to become a member of the United States Academy of Sciences. He was an extremely versatile personality, who left his mark both in the natural sciences and in the philosophy of the Enlightenment.

The Future of Science

... The rapid progress of true science sometimes makes me regret that I was born so early. It is impossible to imagine the height that the power of man over matter will attain in a thousand years. We, perhaps, will learn to deprive a huge mass of their weight and give them absolute ease for a more convenient transportation. Labor costs in agriculture will be reduced and its output will be doubled; all kinds of diseases due to reliable means will either be prevented or cured, not even eliminating the illness of old age, and our life will be prolonged even at the request of even a very old age. The science of morality will follow the right path of improvement, so that there will be no longer a wolf, like a person, now, and people will finally find out what is now incorrectly called philanthropy ...

On Christian Morality

... You want to learn something about my religion. I am asked this for the first time. But I can not misinterpret your curiosity and will try in a few words to satisfy it. My faith is as follows. I believe in the one God-creator of the universe, that he rules it by providence, that he should worship, that the most pleasing service to him is to do good to his other children, that the soul of man is immortal and will be treated fairly in the next world according to her behavior in this. These are the main points of any sound religion, and I respect them, like you, in whatever sect they meet.

As for Jesus of Nazareth, my opinion about which you particularly would like to know, I think that his teaching on morality and his religion is the best that the world has ever known or can learn. However, it seems to me that it has undergone various harmful changes, and I, along with most of the current English dissidents, have some doubts about his divinity. However, this is a question that I can not discuss with full knowledge, since do not study it ...

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