Tasks and discipline structure
Based on the subject of Discipline, the "Methodology of Scientific Research" and the requirements of the Federal State Standard of Higher Professional Education, its purpose is the mastering of the methodological fundamentals of scientific work by students, which must find application in the specifics of specific studies, the formation of professional skills and competences.
Realization of this goal implies the solution of the following tasks :
• the formation of a conception of the essence, classification and characterization of cognition, its object and object;
• the disclosure of the methodological foundations of scientific knowledge: the concept, sources of the emergence of problem situations, approaches to the study of problems;
• training in methods and techniques for conducting socio-economic research, searching for and selecting information, methods and techniques for writing out research results;
• Expanding the students' view of econometric modeling and applying graphical methods in scientific research.
Fig. 1.1. The structure and logic of the application of the knowledge system
To form professional competencies in the field of research methodology, this discipline is based on a logically interconnected set of functional elements that form the structure of the knowledge system, which includes: the general methodological aspects of the philosophy of science, the methodological foundations of scientific research, methods of scientific research, organizational systems, methods of performing scientific research, general requirements for content and issued July final qualification works (Figure 1.1).
The given structure of the knowledge system is based on the work program of the discipline "Methodology of Scientific Research".
A Systems Approach to Scientific Research
The system (from Greek system - the "whole, composed of parts, connection") is a collection of elements that are in relationships and relationships with each other that forms a certain integrity, unity.
The concept of the system arose in ancient philosophy as the orderliness and integrity of being. Ancient Greek philosophers developed the idea of the systemic knowledge (axiomatic construction of logic, geometry, etc.). This can include the philosophical system of Plato, built on absolute ideas, the logical system of Aristotle and later - the philosophical system of Hegel, representing in the aggregate of logic, philosophy of nature and philosophy of the spirit the transcendental idealism of Kant and other philosophers explaining this or that phenomenon from the point of view of a systemic approach .
The intensive penetration of the system approach into various areas of concrete scientific knowledge began in the second half of the 19th century. and developed in the works of Charles Darwin (evolutionary theory), DI Mendeleyev (systematic presentation of all inorganic chemistry from the point of view of the periodic law), A. Einstein (theory of relativity), N. Wiener (theory of the unity of the processes of control and information processing in complex systems, interdisciplinary synthesis, the foundations of cybernetics, etc.), L. Bertalanffy (general theory of systems), etc.
With the advent of work in the field of cybernetics, a strict definition of the concept "system" and the development of operational methods of analysis.
The original definition of the system as a set of elements that are in relationships and relations with one another, was proposed by the Austrian scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901 - 1972), one of the founders of the general theory of systems. He also formulated the properties of the system, gave the first explanation of the laws of integrity, hierarchy, equifinality, introduced the notion of an open system.
The main properties of the system are:
• relationship with the external environment. Any system lives in the environment, it experiences its influence and, in turn, influences the environment. Often the system is created only in order to change the properties of the environment;
• integrity, ie. internal unity, the principle irreducibility of the properties of the system to the sum of the properties of its constituent elements. In other words, the system has the qualities of the "whole, conceivable as much";
• stability, stability in a changing world and, at the same time, dynamism, evolution to approach the goal;
• informationality. To implement the functional properties of the system, you need information interaction between its elements;
• complexity and hierarchy as defining properties in the analysis of the functioning of the system, and in its construction or synthesis. Thus, the duality of knowledge is accepted - from decomposition of knowledge into levels to aggregation while moving up the hierarchy. So, in the economy, macro-, meso- and microeconomic problems are usually singled out, since various means and methods are used to solve them.
From the analysis of the given properties, we can conclude that the system is a special organization of specialized elements, united in a single whole for the solution of a specific problem. The main quality of the organization of the system ( integrity) is the irreducibility of its properties to the properties of the elements and vice versa.
The reasons for the formation (origin) of the system depend on the supersystem structure, since it determines the expediency of the creation (occurrence) of the given system. As a navigator in the subject area of system analysis is the classification of systems. It is known that any classification is only a model of reality, and therefore one should not absolutize it. If the system's relation to a person is taken as the basis of classification, then the following groups of systems can be distinguished: natural, artificial, and mixed
As can be seen from Fig. 1.2, each of the allocated subclasses can be detailed, which leads to a hierarchical classification.
The emergence of a system occurs in the depths of the environment, so the system represents an organized part of the environment, articulated from it by establishing a boundary between the environment and the system, with subsequent detailing for research and management purposes.
Fig. 1.2. Classification of systems
To distinguish a system from the environment, it is necessary to identify the laws that determine its functioning, and to establish a set of elements that obey these laws. They will make up the system.
Thus, the content of the system is established by selecting the elements and defining the relationships between them. To describe the system (object), its model, obtained by means available to us, is used.
Model - a specially synthesized object for the convenience of research, which has the necessary degree of similarity to the original, adequate research objectives, formulated by the subject or the person who made the decision to research the system.
The model corresponds to the real object in the same way as, for example, the portrait of the artist's wife with the image of her in ordinary life (of course, in the classical version).
In the future, using the term system & quot ;, we will mean its model. It should be borne in mind that the compilation of the model is creative, because there is no general methodology for the transition from an object to a model.
In practice, analogies are widely used to obtain models. In many areas of technology, physical or mechanical models were used, and later a whole scientific direction - mathematical modeling - appeared.
It should also be noted that in the knowledge of complex systems, it is natural for a person to move in a deductive way, starting from the simple and going over to the complex one. Also, when constructing a model of the system, micromodels of its individual elements are first created, and then a macromodel is formed. As a result, the macromodel describes the dynamics of a set of micromodels and has integrity quality, i.e. irreducibility of its properties to the sum of properties of micromodels.
The image of the system requires detailed elaboration of its functional elements in the form of some separate formations. Thus, the structure of the system is revealed.
The structure of the system is a collection of closed functional elements that determine its content and are connected by links that characterize the dependence of the elements on each other.
It is known that content is the defining side of the whole and represents the unity of all the constituent elements of the object, its properties, internal processes, connections, contradictions and tendencies.
Form is the way of existence and expression of content. The term form is also used to refer to an internal organization and is therefore associated with the concept of structure.
A. Einstein noted that to study the phenomenon, the most productive is the geometric approach, i.e. the ability to graphically represent the meaning of the subject to visualize the concept of "system structure". Content and form represent a single whole, in which the content is a mobile, dynamic side of the whole, and the form embraces the system of stable ties of the object 1-4 (Figure 1.3).
The inconsistency of content and form arising in the course of development is ultimately resolved by "dropping" old and the emergence of a new form, adequate to the new content.
So, for example, in the regional management system, its constituent elements are constantly changing, which requires appropriate adjustment of the structure. In Fig. 1.4 presents a general model of a region management system that shows the activities of a management entity aimed at achieving specific objectives.
Fig. 1.3. Content-form ratio
Fig. 1.4. General model of the region management system
The description of any management system involves the consideration of the subject, object, goals and management mechanism. The object of management in the system under consideration are specific complexes of various spheres of its life activity: town-planning, transport-road, urban economy, city real estate, finance, social, industrial, foreign economic, scientific and educational, etc. The subjects of regional management are state, general, special and sectoral competence, as well as enterprises and various public organizations. The development of any management system should be based on the allocation and coordination with the external environment of the relevant management objectives. In practice, this is due to the formation of a tree of goals. With respect to the region, you can adopt the hierarchy of goals shown in Fig. 1.5.
The development of a management mechanism is also based on the requirements for realizing the goals that the system faces. At the same time, the characteristic of the control mechanism concerns its general features, on the one hand, and the possibility of applying its specific elements and specific mechanisms for managing narrower spheres, processes, etc. On the other.
Fig. 1.5. Region's Region Tree
If the existing control mechanism does not facilitate the realization of the goals, then it is necessary to improve the management system itself to solve the emerging problems, substantially rebuilding and updating its elements or creating new ones.
In general, the control mechanism is understood as the totality of elements that provide, on the one hand, the necessary interrelation between the object and the subject of management, and on the other hand, the transformation of the influence of the external environment into decisions being made and taken in the management system.
With such an approach, only those elements that adapt the decision-making process and the decisions themselves to the conditions of the external environment and the requirements of the management objects should be included in the management mechanism. This is the difference between the mechanism and the control system. The enlarged structure of the control mechanism of the display region in Fig. 1.6.
The organizational basis for the management mechanism is the bodies and levels of management, specializing in the performance of certain management functions. Their composition is determined by the objectives of the regional management system. And the organizational basis of the control mechanism is its most stable, but not a static element.
The functioning of the regional management mechanism is ensured by the interaction of bodies of general, special and sectoral competence and public formations. At the regional level, it is possible to identify legislative and executive bodies, as well as local self-government bodies.
An important place in the control mechanism is occupied by functional subsystems that implement control functions. At the same time, the management function is a part of management activity, a specific form of purposeful influence on socio-economic processes for obtaining a definite final result. The need to distinguish functional subsystems is objective in nature and is associated with the division of a wide range of tasks and the participation in this process of various management bodies that have their own specific purpose and function relatively independently.
At the core of the functional subsystems are two kinds of functions - basic and providing. The former are external to management decisions. These include planning, organizing, stimulating, accounting, monitoring and analysis.
Providing functions include legal, scientific, methodological, information, personnel, financial, material and technical, software and organizational and technical support.
The external environment
Fig. 1.6. Enlarged structure of the regional management mechanism
The system of special functions for managing the region reflects the complete life cycle of the operation of a particular control object.
The technology of control is closely connected with the functional subsystems. It is a combination of methods and methods of interaction between management bodies (with tools) in the performance of certain formalized and informal operations and techniques.
In the process of management, the subject of control is exposed to the control object. The type and nature of such an impact may be different, but at the same time stable and widely used methods and methods of influencing the control object are formed to achieve the set goals. They are commonly referred to as management methods .
Thus, the course offered to the reader is based on modern achievements of scientific thought in the field of the methodology of cognition and the fundamental principle of system analysis: "To comprehend the subject of consideration, it must be studied in interrelations with its environment, it is necessary to understand the reasons for its development and movement, and therefore, to understand the goals and ways of achieving it, to establish the resources and sources of existence of the phenomenon being analyzed. The whole process of studying must be done systematically, in a certain sequence, only then it will give the expected effect. In other words, the object of cognition should be considered as a system functioning in the environment and interacting with other systems. "1.
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