The correlation between the real and the ideal in...

The relationship between the real and the ideal in politics

In terms of ranking and prioritizing the goals and means to achieve them, the problem of the relationship between the ideal and the real in politics is relevant. As you know, ethics, including political, includes an element of the ideal and the idea of ​​the ultimate goals of society. Naturally, at the point of intersection of ethics and politics, the question of the social ideal, as well as the correlation of goals and means, becomes especially topical. "What always turned the state into hell on earth is an attempt to make it an earthly paradise," wrote the German romantic poet F. Hölderlin.

The attempt to determine the ultimate goal of political action, especially the realization of the ideal of a perfect society, is in fact not consistent with the basic principles of both moral philosophy and the very nature of man. In history there was and could not be a straightforward progress of goodness, perfection, justice, happiness, for man himself is the focus of both the light and the dark, both divine and devilish principles, the beginnings of good and evil.

Morality and moral and ethical imperatives should be regarded as an ideal that is largely unattainable in the real world. From the chapter's materials on realism and idealism in politics, it can be concluded that the very formulation of the question of " , the final decision ", the full realization of one or another ideal model or ultimate goal is fraught with enormous dangers to human freedom itself and, accordingly, the danger of annihilation (from the late annihilation - the destruction, disappearance) of morality itself and morality.

Those who believe in the possibility of a final solution to all problems of mankind by creating a perfect socio-political system will be ready to pay any price, even millions and tens of millions of human lives for this, as was the case with totalitarian regimes. By the very logic of things, he is ready to suppress and destroy his opponents, if they do not share his goals, eradicate all heretical, in his opinion, views.

Since in this case the path to the goal is long and long, it is necessary to constantly take measures to ensure the permanence of the goal by suppressing any criticism, eliminating all opposition, instilling a belief in the wisdom and omnipotence of the leader in the movement towards the intended goal. One of the most important principles of such utopianism is that each epoch that has come will be sacrificed to those who will come after it, and so on ad infinitum.

Obviously, the problem of the correlation of political goals and means can not be solved, based, as FV Foerster tried to do, on the postulate: "Good can follow good, evil can only be evil." As historical experience shows, in the sphere of power relations of the most industrious of people lies a lot of temptations.

As the ancient Greeks said, the authorities reveal the true essence of man. We have to state that the latter is composed of a set of constant and variable values, where the divine is interspersed with satanic, nobility with the base, truly human with the Neanderthal, the aspiration with the devil's obsession.

A man does not always stand the test by power and often in it the second principle prevails. Truly, as one of the heroes of the English writer GK Chesterton, Father Brown, said, "you can keep on one level of good, but no one has ever been able to stay on the same level of evil." Unfortunately, for examples that testify to the correctness of this judgment, we do not need to address remote times or countries, in our life today there are plenty of examples.

In addition, not always a person or an idea stands on the socio-political proscenium in its true guise. It happens that great ideas come to the world in an embrace with evil, but it also happens that, as FM Dostoyevsky once said, evil comes into the world in the guise of good. Should we recall here that once in history different kinds of false prophets pretending to make everyone happy, in fact turned out to be real antichrists and unscrupulous villains, who brought innumerable misfortunes to their own and to foreign peoples.

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