The emergence of the philosophy of Marxism - Philosophy course of lectures

2. The emergence of the philosophy of Marxism

The founders of the philosophy of Marxism are German thinkers of the XIX century. - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Marx Karl Heinrich (1818-1883 gg.), thinker, public figure, revolutionary theorist, founder of dialectical materialism. Born in the ancient city of Germany, Trier, located on the banks of the Moselle, the inflow of the Rhine into a wealthy family of a lawyer at the highest appellate court. Henry Marx (baptized Jew) - the father of Charles, was an educated and talented person: he knew the works of Rousseau, Voltaire, Locke, Leibniz; mother - Henrietta Presborn, born in Holland, was only engaged in household chores. Charles had three brothers and five sisters, the brothers died early, and three sisters - Sophia, Emilia and Louise, survived it. From 1830 to 1835, Marx studied in the Triumfian gymnasium, after which he entered the University of Bonn, where he studied law. After two semesters (on the advice of his father), he continued his studies at the University of Berlin, where at that time the best specialists in the field of jurisprudence were introduced. However, in addition to law, he studied history, the theory of art, mastered foreign languages, thoroughly engaged in philosophy. For dissertational work "The difference between the natural philosophy of Democritus and the natural philosophy of Epicurus" received a Ph.D. diploma, was preparing to teach logic at the University of Bonn. But the socio-political events in Germany, and in Europe as a whole, changed Marx's plans. At the same time, his views were significantly influenced by the works of L. Feuerbach - "The Essence of Christianity", "Fundamentals of the Philosophy of the Future". Since 1842, he became an employee, and then editor of the opposition newspaper "Rheinische Zeitung" in Cologne. At the same time, his acquaintance with F. Engels, who on his way to England visited the editorial office of the newspaper. After the newspaper was closed in 1843, Marx left for Paris and became the initiator of the creation of the German-French democratic magazine "Deutsch-Franzosische Jahrbucher". He planned to invite Lamenne, Blanc, Cabe, P oreo, Feuerbach to work there. In Paris in 1844 his friendship with F. Engels was born. Among the basic philosophical works of Marx are: "To the criticism of Hegel's philosophy of law." Introduction, "Economical-philosophical manuscripts", "Holy Family". Together with F. Engels, the "German Ideology", "Theses on Feuerbach," "The Poverty of Philosophy" are written.

Karl Marx died on March 14 March 1883 in London, where he lived in recent years with his family. His body was betrayed to the ground in the Higuet cemetery.

Engels Friedrich (1820-1895 gg.), thinker and a major European social and political figure, a friend of Karl Marx and his philosophical companion. Born in Rhenish Prussia in Barmen, in the family of a textile manufacturer, a man of wealth, but very conservative. Friedrich's childhood was spent in Barmen and Elberfeld, the cities located in the valley of the Wupper River, where Germany's large-scale industry of the nineteenth century was developing. Father wanted to educate children in the spirit of strict rules and a year before his graduation from Elberfeld's son in 1838 He sends him to Bremen to England for commercial practice in a trading company. In November 1842, he traveled to Manchester, where the textile firm "Ermen and Engels", whose shareholder was his father, was located. In his free time, Friedrich was engaged in self-education: he studied history, philosophy, literature, linguistics, foreign languages. Acquaintance with the advanced ideas of his time, above all, with the work of the Young Hegelians, helped Engels to free himself from the religious views that were inspired to him in the family. His world view was formed under the influence of progressive ideological trends of that era - the democratism of L. Berne, the philosophy of G. Hegel, the radical views of the Young Hegelians, as well as personal labor experience and their own socio-political observations. Since 1839, he became an employee of the magazine Telegraph für Deutschland - organ of the radical literary group "Young Germany". Being in Paris in 1844, he closely converges with K. Marx and is friends with him until his death. In 1845, Engels traveled to Brussels, where Marx moved, they are working together on the book "German Ideology", which was completed in 1846. Together they wrote philosophical works - "Theses on Feuerbach" (1845), "The Poverty of Philosophy" (1847). Engels was a determined and brave man, repeatedly participated in combat operations, fought on the barricades during the wave of uprisings that swept Germany in the late 40's. XIX century. He was a good connoisseur and theorist of military art, contributed to the formation and development of a number of sciences, including materialistic philosophy. After the death of Karl Marx, he completed his scientific work "Capital," publishing the 2nd and 3rd volumes. Among the philosophical works of Engels are: "Anti-Duhring," "Ludwig Feuerbach," and the end of classical German philosophy, "The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State."

Friedrich Engels died on August 5 in 1895. According to his will, the body was cremated, and ashes were scattered in the waters of the bay at the junction of the English Channel and the Pas-de-Calais near the town of Eastbourne in the southeast England - the favorite resting place of Engels.

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