The fate of cultural diversity in a globalizing world. - Social anthropology

The fate of cultural diversity in a globalizing world.

The threat of loss of civilizational and cultural diversity, according to a number of analysts, is not unbelievable. In the process of direct intercultural contacts, a stronger and more aggressive culture, through direct or indirect pressure, can lead to the absorption of one culture by another, to a loss of ethno-cultural identity.

Expert opinion

A. A. Huseynov on the scenarios of globalization: "The first is to add political and economic globalization to the ethical and cultural in such a way that together with Western investments and technologies the world also learns Western values. & lt; ... & gt; With a known simplification, we can say: globalization in this case is understood as the "victory of the new European civilization," the capitalist social system.

The second scenario is focused on the dialogue of cultures. In the methodological plan, he proceeds from the idea of ​​the plurality of civilizations, implying the autonomy of cultures (in terms of their independence both from each other and from the technical and economic aspects of society) and in the axiological plan is focused on their equivalence .

Several scenarios of intercultural interaction are distinguished by different researchers. Academician A. L. Huseynov singles out two opposing, but equally destructive strategies in the question of the relation of cultures to each other: cosmopolitan , which ignores the differences of cultures, and chauvinistic , which absolutizes them : "Both of them initially exclude dialogue, in the case of a cosmopolitan strategy the dialogue becomes redundant, pointless, and in the case of chauvinistic - impossible and unnecessary. These dangerous tendencies, however, are useful in one respect: they designate the edges of the abyss, leaving only the golden mean of which can be reached .

Other researchers, the main vectors of interaction of cultures are characterized more differentially:

1) integration, each of the interacting groups of carrier subjects of a particular culture retains its cultural distinctiveness, carrying out close, mutually enriching intercultural contacts; Tolerance is actualized as a value; ethno-cultural identity is preserved and strengthened;

2) assimilation, one of the interacting social communities or groups loses its identity; ethnocultural identity is lost;

3) separatism : a social community or group, while retaining its culture, refuses to contact with a foreign culture environment; ethnocultural identity "stiffens", giving rise to value-based fundamentalism and xenophobia;

4) marginalization , cultural unrest: a social community or group loses its culture without establishing close contacts with the other; ethnocultural identity is blurred and becomes vague. Such a situation was deeply analyzed by S. Huntington with reference to American identity.

Thus, socio-cultural anthropology requires an approach to cultural diversity that takes into account its dynamic nature resulting from the continuity of cultural change. The phenomenon of cultural identity should also be rethought, because in the globalizing world, the origins of cultural identity are often multiple; and in a multicultural context, some people will choose this or that identity in a specific form, others will follow the path of dualism, the third will prefer to create for themselves hybrid forms of identity .

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