The main problems of philosophy, Ontology, Aristotle...

The main problems of philosophy


Aristotle. Metaphysics

The fifth book. Chapter Four . Nature, or nature (physis), is the emergence of what is growing (as if the sound of " in the word physis was pronounced long); the first principle of the growing, from which it grows; then, whence the first movement inherent in each of the natural things as such. And natural growth is said about what is growing through the other through contact and fusion or germination, as is the case with embryos. The fusion is different from the contact; in the latter case it is not necessary that there be something different, in addition to the contact, the fused things have one thing that is identical in both of them, which unites them, instead of only touching them, and makes them something in one by continuity and quantity, but not in quality. The nature also refers to that from which as the first or consists, or there arises any thing that exists not by nature, and that is devoid of certain outlines and is not capable of changing by one's own power, for example: copper of a statue and copper objects is called their nature, and the nature of wood is wood (and so on of other things, for from such [materials] there is every thing, and the first matter is preserved): for it is precisely in this sense that elements of natural things are called nature, some call fire, others earth and others air , or water, silt anything else like that, others - some of these elements, others - all of them. Nature also refers to the essence of natural things, for example, those who claim that nature is the primary link of components, as Empedocles says: [Nature] does not exist [nature's stance], there is only a mixture and separation of what has been mixed. And people get the name of nature from people.

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Therefore, about what exists or arises naturally, although there is already something from which it naturally arises or on the basis of which it exists, we still do not say that it has a nature if it does not yet have a form, or image. The natural way, therefore, is that which consists of matter and form, for example, living beings and parts of their body; and the nature is, on the one hand, the first matter (moreover, in a double sense, either as the first in relation to the thing itself, or as the first in general, for example, if we take copper products, then in relation to themselves, the first is copper, and in general, maybe water, if everything that melts is water), on the other hand, form, or essence; and the essence is the goal of emergence. In a figurative sense, by nature, by the resemblance to the essence of natural things, all essence is called in general, since the essence of [artificial things] is in some respects natural.

As we can see from the above, nature or nature in its primary and proper sense is essence, namely, the essence of what has the beginning of the movement in itself as such: matter is called nature because it is capable of accepting this essence, and the emergence different kind and growth are called natural because they are movements originating from this entity. And the beginning of the movement of natural things - it is this essence, because it somehow is in them - either in possibility or in reality.

The fifth book. Chapter Twenty-Four . Being out of something (ektines) means: to consist of something as of matter, in a double way - or it refers to the first kind or to the last species; for example, as all fusible consists of water, and so, as a statue - of copper; be from something like the first initiating movement (for example, "from" what the battle? From quarrel, because the quarrel is the beginning of the battle); belong to what consists of matter and form (morphe), for example: parts - of whole, verse - from Iliad and stones - from at home, for form is the goal, and that which has reached the goal is completed; be made up as a form (eidos) of the part, for example: "man"; - of the bipedal & quot ;, syllable - from the speech sound & quot ;; This has a different meaning than the one in which the statue is made of copper: after all, the composite entity is from sensible material, and form, although it is also from matter, in from matter inherent in form. So, in some cases be out of something is said in the indicated meanings, and in others when one of these values ​​is applicable to what comes from some part of the other, for example: the child - father and mother, plants - from land, since they are from some of these things. Being out of something means also to occur after something in time, for example: from day - night, from The calm is a storm, because one occurs after another. In some of these cases, this is said because one goes into another, as in the examples just cited, in others - just because one follows another in time, for example: "from" The equinox was followed by a sea voyage, since it happened after the equinox, and "of" the feast of Dionysius - the festival of Tartel, as it happens after Dionysius.

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The book is the sixth. Chapter Four . Let us now leave the question of what exists as an appendage, for it is sufficiently defined. As for being in the sense of the true and non-existent in the false sense, it depends on the binding and separation, and the true and the false together - from the differentiation of the members of the contradiction, namely: the true statement as to what is really connected, and the negation of what is in fact separated; but what is false contradicts this distinction; as it turns out to be possible "to think together" or think separately Is another question, and under together and separately I do not mean that there is a sequence, but that there is some unity. After all, the false and the true are not in things, so that the good, for example, is true, and the evil is necessarily false, but there are in [reasoning] thoughts, in relation to the simple and its essence - not even in thought. So, what should be investigated regarding the existing and non-existent in this sense, this should be disassembled in the future. And since binding and disconnection are in thought, but not in things, and what is real in the sense of the truth is different from what is in the proper sense (because thought connects or separates either the essence of things, or the quality, or the quantity, or something else like that) then the existing in the sense of the incoming and in the sense of the true must now be left, for the cause of the first is indefinite, and the cause of the second is a certain state of thought, and as that, both concern the remaining kind of being and do not express anything that would no longer be in nature existing. Therefore, we will leave them, and consider the causes and the beginning of the very being itself as such, & lt; and from what we have established with respect to the polysemy of each [expression], it is clear that the existent is said in various senses & gt;.

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