The role of labor in the formation of a child.Initially, the elements of labor are included in the child's play activity, but in different cultures the age at which work becomes an equal and necessary form of activity varies greatly. Thus, in traditional societies, a child is involved in labor activity much earlier than in industrial and, especially, post-industrial societies.
The main directions of the analysis of labor in childhood:
• the motive of labor activity in children of different cultures;
• the beginning of labor activity;
• game-labor ratio;
• structure and types of child labor.
P. G. and R. L. Munro and E. S. Shimmin investigated four ethnocultural communities (from Kenya, Belize, American Samoa and Nepal), in which children are early involved in the labor process. So, already in three years, various responsibilities take up to 10% of the child's time, and by the end of nine years, up to a third of the extra-curricular time of the child is devoted to this.
In the work of these researchers, the following two theses are substantiated.
1. Children work where they have economic value, i.e. where the family and community for their existence need a product produced by children, both in kind and in kind.
2. Work affects the developing personality of the person.
The relationship between the involvement in a particular type is found
Labor and specific types of behavior of children: a) "Sociality", i.e. the ability to enter into social interaction; b) the "need for help"; c) the ability to take responsibility. & nbsp;Working children prefer interaction patterns similar to the types of work in which they are primarily involved: girls caring for children transfer some of the behavioral stereotypes developed in this process to all children younger than themselves. In turn, boys, commas with heavy labor, are more often willing to take responsibility for themselves. The researchers come to the conclusion that "the level of child labor is determined by the ecological environment and, in turn, is one of the sources of character formation of the child", "the work of children can influence their social behavior" .
In societies with an appropriating economy, children are included early in the overall labor process of a social group.
E. S. Sobolev shows that on the island of Timor, the labor of men, women and children in the family supplements each other. A girl from six years old walks with her mother in the field; At this age, she must also collect fuel, carry water, wash dishes, clean the yard, spinning yarn, weaving baskets. & lt; ... & gt; The eight-year-old boy not only carries water and gravity into the house, walks with his father in the field, but also guards the ripening harvest from birds, pigs and monkeys, along with older brothers grazing buffaloes not only on plains, but also on mountain pastures .
Thus, in traditional societies in work, the child takes possession of those forms of social interaction, which he then uses outside the work process in various forms of behavior. In the industrial and post-industrial societies, the social experience of adults is most often learned by children in games. In such societies, child labor plays a minimal role.
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